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JDT Core Programmer Guide/MetaIndex

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This page is currently under construction. Community members are encouraged to maintain the page, and make sure the information is accurate.


Introduction

The new MetaIndex was introduced to reduce the time it takes to build the TypeHierarchy of java types.


Problem

Today the when building the TypeHierarchy then IndexBasedHierarchyBuilder perform a recursive search to find subtypes which the number of iterations are equal to the number of sub types found.

So in a workspace where you have 5000 indexes this could lead to a very long response time if you sub type tree is also large. For example i have a workspace which has a TypeHierarchy as follows

Interface1
 |-- Interface2
      |-- Class2
 |-- Interface3
      |-- Class3
 |-- Interface4
      |-- Class4
 |-- Interface5
      |-- Class5
 |-- Interface6
      |-- Class6

All these classes and interfaces are in the same project. And this workspace has nearly 1000 indexes, try to build this TypeHierarchy takes around 15 sec. Looking closer at the profiling snapshots shown that we are performing more than 11 pattern searches on all 1000 indexes. The number of iterations depends on how much super type entries you find in indexes since the pattern search doesn't take into account the inheritance hierarchy.

For example if you search for type hierarchy of a.b.c.Value, the first iteration will find all types which has the simple name Value which will result in all subtypes which has some super type called Value. In the same way the types found keeps growing in each iteration based on the types you have in your workspace.


Solution

The solution we look at is to reduce the number of indexes that are search in this 11+ iterations. in this particular example we should be only searching in the index document for this project. But how does the IndexBasedHierarchyBuilder select the correct indexes.

To address this we looked at where we should filter the indexes and we choose to do that at IndexSelector.getIndexLocations. Then we end up thinking what should be our criteria for this index selection and how we could find these indexes. Because we cannot search all indexes to find its eligibility.

To support this we decided to introduce a new MetaIndex which index all index document names against a qualification which can be used for filter indexes.

When performing a type hierarchy build we will set the qualifier of the type in each iteration into SearchPattern and use that value to perform a search in MetaIndex to find index names that needs to be included in current iteration at IndexSelector.getIndexLocations and filter out the index locations.

To support backward compatibility, when performing this MetaIndex search at IndexManager.findMatchingIndexNames() we check if there are any indexes which are not part of the MetaIndex and include them by default. This handles

  • When the MetaIndex is not created in the workspace
  • When there are indexes which are not included in the MetaIndex
  • When there are prebuilt indexes


Lets look at different qualifications we used and their impact on indexing and accuracy of the search and also how this new meta index can be used for other search types in future.

Package name based solution

The first qualification type we looked at we decided to use java package names as the qualification value. So we ended up updating the MetaIndex as follows

Category Key ContainerPath
TYPE_INDEX_Q java.lang.util 1234634.index
TYPE_INDEX_Q java.lang.util 12348756.index
TYPE_INDEX_Q com.google.guava 1234634.index

We have modified all Indexer implementation to update package usages of each class and compilation unit each indexer scan into the index it self with a new key TYPE_INDEX_Q, this keep track of all packages used as

  • Imports
  • Fully qualified type references
  • Current package name of the class or compilation unit

The capturing of package names are done in BinaryIndexes by looking at fully qualified reference names and extracting the package name from them. Basically the reference is read until the last '.' and use the value as package name. This is not a problem in class files the nested types are seperated by '$'. Following are the place where the package usages are extracted from

  • Class Declarations (superclass, superinterfaces)
  • Enum Declarations (superinterfaces)
  • Interface Declarations (superinterfaces)
  • Annotation Declarations (superclass)


The capturing of package names are done in SourceIndexer little bit differently. The steps are as follows

  • Extract package names from all none * imports
  • Extract package names from
    • Class Declarations (superclass, superinterfaces)
    • Enum Declarations (superinterfaces)
    • Interface Declarations (superinterfaces)
    • Annotation Declarations (superclass)

if they are qualified names, otherwise we check if the class name was available in the imports we processed, if not we collect them to be resolved later. Once we have scanned the whole compilation unit, we will try to do a diet resolving of the classes we didn't found neither as fully qualified nor in imports.

We do this diet resolving by try to match these classes in current project's package fragment roots. This is implemented at SourceIndexerRequestor.performDietResolution(), this will handle default package types, types from java.lang package as well. After performing this if we still find type which are not resolved, then that mean we have some types which might be part of inheriting hierarchy like

ProjectA
in package p1:
   class Couter {
        protected class Inner { ... }
   }
in package p2:
   class Middle extends p1.Couter {}

ProjectB
in package p3:
   class C extends p2.Middle {
        class I extends Inner {}
   }

So to resolve this Inner class usage we need to resolve the type bindings of the compilation unit, therefore we mark the source document as it needs to be IndexingResolvedDocument. Before introducing this the only criteria for IndexingResolvedDocument was when there are lambda expressions.

When doing this we found that it has an overhead on the Indexing because resolving type bindings takes the considerable amount of time. So when looking closer at this we found that most of the type binding resolution time is spend at IndexBasedJavaSearchEnvironment.create(List<IJavaProject>, ICompilationUnit[]), and also we so that this environment is create for each source file which needs to be resolved even though the source files might be from the same project. So to reduce creating this INameEnvironment repeated we introduce a LRU cache, which is cleared at the end of indexing and also project entries are clear as soon as the project change is detected. At a glance this could be seen as a increase in memory, but since the LRU cache use SoftReferences the heavy INameEnvironment objects will be garbage collected when they are not accessed. Also this reduce the overhead for the GC of cleaning up large INameEnvironment objects which was created repeated when every you need resolution of the compilation unit.

Results

Indexing times on large workspace

TODO: Add indexing time

Search times

== Master search ================================
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  2.   2. 124.]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  6.   8. 794.]
iteration size: 2649
total time: 5152ms
=================================================
== Package search =====================
total meta index search time: 30ms
meta index search time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [0. 0. 1.]
search iteration index selection pcts (50,80,100): [ 17.  24. 474.]
search iteration total indexes pcts (50,80,100): [578. 578. 578.]
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  1.    1.2 148. ]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  0.   1. 835.]
iteration size: 600
total time: 966ms
=================================================

But looking at closer we found that for certain scenarios we miss some subtypes. So we looked for more solutions which will not require us to change a lot of Indexers like we did in this solution.

Simple name based solution

In this solution we use the type simple name as the index qualifier when creating the MetaIndex. We only had to change the AbstractIndexer to extract the required information into MetaIndex. The MetaIndex looks as follows

Category Key ContainerPath
TYPE_INDEX_Q List 1234634.index
TYPE_INDEX_Q List 12348756.index
TYPE_INDEX_Q ImmutableList 1234634.index

Results

Indexing times on large workspace

TODO: Add indexing time

Search times

== Master search ================================
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  2.   2. 124.]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  6.   8. 794.]
iteration size: 2649
total time: 5152ms
=================================================
== SimpleName search ============================
total meta index search time: 91ms
meta index search time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [0. 0. 1.]
search iteration index selection pcts (50,80,100): [ 17.  18. 462.]
search iteration total indexes pcts (50,80,100): [578. 578. 578.]
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  0.   1. 126.]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  0.   1. 491.]
iteration size: 2649
total time: 2064ms
=================================================

One problem we found in this solution is when the type you search for has a very common name, When you have a very common name such as Value and if you have the same class name in your dependent libraries under different packages names, you will have many iterations of SuperTypeReference search collecting lot of types which are not from the same inheritance hierarchy as you are searching for.

So we looked at how workspace compositions, like number of projects, number library references etc. In majority of the time you have more library references than number of projects you have in the workspace. Which means you have more binary indexes and source indexes when you are searching.

We use this information to come up with the more optimized solution.


Simple + Qualified name based solution

When indexing binary jar files, we have the qualified names of types. So we decided to use that information and update the MetaIndex with qualified names for binary indexes, but for projects, we use the SimpleName of types since trying to resolve will take up more indexing time.

Also to further improve super type search, we use two categories in MetaIndex.

  • metaIndexTQ  : is used for normal type references such as method return types, type declarations etc.
  • metaIndexSTQ : is used for super type references such as super class or super interface.

Each of above categories as a SimpleName and QualifiedName representation. So the actual categories used looks like below

  • metaIndexSTQ  : SimpleName Type Reference Qualifier
  • metaIndexQTQ  : QualifiedName Type Reference Qualifier
  • metaIndexSSTQ : SimpleName Super Type Reference Qualifier
  • metaIndexQSTQ : QualifiedName Super Type Reference Qualifier

So with this change this how the MetaIndex looks like.

Category Key ContainerPath
metaIndexSSTQ List 1234634.index
metaIndexQSTQ java.util.List 12348756.index
metaIndexSTQ ImmutableList 1234634.index
metaIndexQTQ com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList 1234634.index

Results

Indexing times on large workspace

TODO: Add indexing time

Search times

== Master search ================================
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  2.   2. 124.]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  6.   8. 794.]
iteration size: 2649
total time: 5152ms
=================================================
== Simple+Qualified Name search ================================
total meta index search time: 56ms
meta index search time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [0. 0. 1.]
search iteration index selection pcts (50,80,100): [ 17.  18. 182.]
search iteration total indexes pcts (50,80,100): [578. 578. 578.]
search iteration time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  1.   1. 131.]
search iteration cumulative time(ms) pcts (50,80,100): [  0.   1. 767.]
iteration size: 760
total time: 1025ms
=================================================

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