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EclipseLink/Examples/JPA/GlassFishV2 Web Tutorial

EclipseLink JPA Deployed on GlassFish 2.1 using Eclipse WTP

Having issues running JPA 2.0 on Glassfish V2 - use Glassfish V3 (The JPA 2.0 RI) and an application managed persitence unit (no EntityManagerProxy support for 2.0 in GF 2.1) and stay away from the persistence.xml 2.0 schema - see the JPA 2.0 reference page for Glassfish V3 and V2 or WebLogic Server (up to 10.3.3) support for JPA 2.0

Note: This tutorial' is under construction for the next week as of 20091207 as part of JPA 2.0 compliance for the Glassfish V3 server in enhancement #296269 .

If you want to get a small web application running quickly on GlassFish - the services provided by the Web Tools Project plugin in the Eclipse IDE can take care of the deployment details and set the server into debug mode for you.

This basic example details how to use Eclipse to run/debug a minimum J2EE web application servlet using EclipseLink JPA as the persistence provider. The goal of this example is to detail the minimum steps needed to run EclipseLink inside SUN GlassFish using the Eclipse IDE - at this point no presentation/controller layer such as JSF, Spring or Struts will be used beyond a basic HttpServlet so we can concentrate on the the integration layer JPA setup.

The DALI project was used to generate Entities from a schema with sequences already populated.

The details described here are valid for both GlassFish V2 2.1.1 and the SUN Java System Application Server 9

Development Environment

Software: Eclipse IDE for Java EE 3.4 Ganymede (June 2008 +) with all 5 packages (DTP 1.6, EMF 2.4, GEF 3.4, WTP 3.0, XSD 2.4), Derby Database 10.4, Java JDK 1.6.0_04, GlassFish V2.1.1

This example will run fine with any Database that EclipseLink supports.


Install Eclipse EE

  • I installed a clean version of Eclipse 3.5 32-bit EE edition.

Install a Database

Install GlassFish

I installed the latest GlassFish V2.1.1 Final build and followed the instructions on that page.

  • C:\opt>java -Xmx256m -jar glassfish-installer-v2.1.1-b31g-windows.jar
  • C:\opt\glassfish>cd glassfish
  • C:\opt\glassfish>ant -f setup.xml

Install GlassFish Eclipse 3.5 Server Plugin

  • The GlassFish server plugin is not shipped by default with Eclipse - you will need to update your Eclipse IDE to pick up the plugin.
    • Goto the Servers tab in a Java EE view and right-click New | Server
    • Select the link "Download additional Server adapters"
    • Select the GlassFish Java EE 5 Server from - make sure it is version 1.0.9+

Glassfish download additional servers.JPG

Validating the GlassFish/Eclipse configuration

  • Use the V2.1.1 plugin when creating a server

Glassfish v211 eclipse server plugin create.JPG

  • Create a default domain1 domain

Glassfish v211 eclipse server plugin default domain.JPG

  • Start the server to test the plugin
  • You should see the following message when running http://localhost:8080

Glassfish v211 default page.JPG

Glassfish v211 admin login.JPG

  • Create an empty EAR application using the Eclipse Java EE application wizard
    • Create an EJB and Web subproject - do not add any facets for other servers - as GlassFish does not appear in the "Target Runtime" dropodown yet
      • Switch the EAR version to 5.0 from 1.4
    • Add a test.jsp page to the Web project
  • Select the EAR project, right-click and "Run on Server" or previously associate the Targetted Runtimes with the server you just created.

Run 15ear on glassfish2 server.JPG

GlassFish Configuration Changes

The following configuration changes will need to be done within the GlassFish [http:/"4848 admin] console.

JNDI Datasource Setup

Global Scoped Datasource Setup

After logging into the admin console navigate to the following 2 sections to setup the JDBC connection pool and DataSource.

Setup GlassFish JDBC Connection Pool

  • 1 - create your own connection pool and datasource

Resource | JDBC | Connection Pools | New Connection Pool Resource | JDBC | Connection Pools | New JDBC DataSource

  • 2 - or use the preconfigured datasource "jdbc/__default" that comes with GlassFish
    • You may want to remove the property ;create=true to manage your own database state.

Glassfish admin jdbc derby details.JPG

  • You should see the following logs on predeploy
[EL Config]: 2008.09.15 15:20:52.611--ServerSession(20983130)--Connection(4519815)--Thread(Thread[main,5,main])--connecting(DatabaseLogin(
	user name=> "APP"
	datasource URL=> "jdbc:derby:C:/opt/derby104/sun-appserv-samples;create=true"
[EL Config]: 2008.09.15 15:20:54.200--ServerSession(20983130)--Connection(22611277)--Thread(Thread[main,5,main])--Connected: jdbc:derby:C:/opt/derby104/sun-appserv-samples
	User: APP
	Database: Apache Derby  Version: - (599110)
	Driver: Apache Derby Embedded JDBC Driver  Version: - (599110)

Persistence JAR location

  • You will not need to add a jar for the Persistence API 1.0 - GlassFish already includes it.
  • However, your project will need a reference to $EclipseLink\plugins\javax.persistence_*.jar

EclipseLink JAR location

  • GlassFish V2 Build 32+ is aware of EclipseLink - however you still need to copy the latest eclipselink.jar into GlassFish.
  • The eclipselink.jar should be placed off of the container lib directory $GLASSFISH_HOME/lib
  • It is not recommended that the EAR include its own version of eclipselink.jar.
  • Your eclipse project should reference but not include this jar.

Downloading EclipseLink Libraries

Download EclipseLink using HTTP - recommended

Download EclipseLink using Maven

See the repository on

Download EclipseLink using SVN - developers only

JDBC JAR location

Jars for Derby 10, Oracle 11, MySQL 5 and Sybase 5.5/6.0 should be placed off the container lib directory $GLASSFISH_HOME/lib if they don't already exist.

JSR-317 JPA 2.0 EJB 3.1 Support

Create J2EE application

Either checkout the 3 source projects attached to this tutorial or create your own J2EE Enterprise Application as below. File | new | project | J2EE | Enterprise Application Project Select server, use 5.0 Ear version

Create a new Web and an optional EJB project

Select generate deployment descriptor if you want to change the context-root

  • Path changes
	<classpathentry combineaccessrules="false" kind="src" path="/org.eclipse.persistence.core"/>
	<classpathentry combineaccessrules="false" kind="src" path="/org.eclipse.persistence.jpa"/>
	<classpathentry combineaccessrules="false" kind="src" path="/eclipselink.jar"/>
  • After EAR project creation - reference the org.eclipse.peristence.core and jpa projects or include a reference to eclipselink.jar in your EJB project and reference the EJB project from your WAR project.
  • If you don't reference the eclipselink.* projects then include a classpath reference to persistence.jar and an Oracle (or other Database) JDBC driver jar for your DB - You will need to put this JDBC driver jar in your /domains/domain1/lib directory as well.

UML Data Model

The following single entity Cell has a @ManyToMany bidirectional relationship to itself.

Eclipselink server jee jpa examples datamodel.gif

Tutorial Design

The goal of the tutorial is to demonstrate a quick start end-to-end deployment on a specific application server of an EclipseLink JPA application. To accomplish this...

  • The web framework is a simple servlet so we avoid container specific issues around JSF implementation.
  • The data model is very simple (@ManyToMany) - as the other tutorials get into more advanced JPA entity concepts and annoations
  • The entitymanager is container managed where possible by injection
  • The schema is generated by DDL generation in a separate common application managed SE app.
  • The application context name is standard across servers
  • The datasource is globally defined (by the user) on the server - with the only configuration setting being the jta-data-source element in persistence.xml

DDL/Schema Generation

JPA Entity Configuration

For all other application servers that support JPA 1.0 profiled so far (WebLogic, OC4J, Tomcat and JBoss) - I was able to use BigDecimal as the @Id for entity classes. In GlassFish 2 I had to switch to using BigInteger (or Long) as the entity @Id.

public class Cell implements Serializable {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = -8865917134914502125L;
    // keep the sequence column name under 30 chars to avoid an ORA-00972   
    @SequenceGenerator(name="EL_SEQUENCE_CELL", sequenceName="EL_CELL_SEQ", allocationSize=25)
    private BigInteger id;


The GlassFish V2 server is defined as the SUN Application Server 9 in JPA as "SunAS9"

Verify in particular that you have the property set - especially if you are migrating from TopLink Essentials to EclipseLink - where the provider and target-server were defaulted.

  • JTA : Put persistence.xml beside your JPA entities in yourProjectEJB/ejbModule/META-INF
  • The provider must be specified or it will default to TopLink Essentials
<persistence version="1.0" xmlns="" xmlns:xsi="" xsi:schemaLocation="">
  <persistence-unit name="enterprise" transaction-type="JTA">
      <property name="" value="SunAS9"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="FINEST"/>
  • RESOURCE_LOCAL : non-JTA : Put persistence.xml beside your JPA entities in yourProjectEJB/ejbModule/META-INF
  • This one is used by a local SE Java app to create and pre-populated the derby database
  <persistence-unit name="stat.create.tables" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">
      <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.platform" value="org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.DerbyPlatform"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.driver" value="org.apache.derby.jdbc.EmbeddedDriver"/>
      <property name="" value="Derby"/>            
      <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.url" value="jdbc:derby:C:/opt/derby104/sun-appserv-samples;create=true"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.user" value="APP"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.jdbc.password" value="APP"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.logging.level" value="FINEST"/>            
      <property name="eclipselink.ddl-generation" value="drop-and-create-tables"/>
      <property name="eclipselink.ddl-generation.output-mode" value="database"/>

Start Server

  • Steps: Select the EAR and [Run on Server].
  • The first "Run on Server" may not start the server, in this case you "Start Server" and then "Run on Server".

Publish EAR

  • You will see the following in the server.log redirected to Eclipse.
Buildfile: C:\wse\w35d\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.jst.server.generic.core\serverdef\sunappsrv-ant.xml
   [delete] Deleting: C:\wse\w35d\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.jst.server.generic.core\serverdef\
   [delete] Deleting: C:\wse\w35d\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.jst.server.generic.core\serverdef\
      [jar] Building jar: C:\wse\w35d\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.wst.server.core\tmp2\org.eclipse.persistence.example.jpa.server.glassfishv2.EnterpriseEAR.ear
   [delete] Deleting: C:\wse\w35d\.metadata\.plugins\org.eclipse.jst.server.generic.core\serverdef\
     [exec] Command deploy executed successfully.
     [echo] Application Deployed at: http://localhost:8080/org.eclipse.persistence.example.jpa.server.glassfishv2.EnterpriseEAR
Total time: 3 seconds

Perform CRUD operations: JPQL insert and query

Browser Output

Glassfish ear application screen.JPG


EJBException on valid JPA 2.0 API

  • The following exception will occur if you are running the default JPA 1.0 API that ships with Glassfish V2 because it is Java EE 5 compliant - you will need the JPA 2.0 API specification jar higher in your server classpath.
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.BaseContainer.processSystemException(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.BaseContainer.completeNewTx(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.BaseContainer.postInvokeTx(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.BaseContainer.postInvoke(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.BaseContainer.postInvoke(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.EJBLocalObjectInvocationHandler.invoke(
	at com.sun.ejb.containers.EJBLocalObjectInvocationHandlerDelegate.invoke(
	at $Proxy32.getMetamodel(Unknown Source



  • 20080915 - Originated on build 20080915 - Michael O'Brien
  • 20091207 - retrofitting for JPA 2.0 usage

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