Papyrus/Codegen/Adding a New Code Generator
Papyrus has already have code generation support for C++ and Java programming languages. Besides, support for Ada and C programming languages are also on the way. However, it is possible to develop and integrate new code generators for other programming languages to Papyrus. In this article you will find how add a new code generator to Papyrus from scratch.
- 1 Preparing the Development Environment (Prerequisites)
- 2 Preparing the Required Projects
- 3 Developing the New Code Generator
- 4 Integrating the New Code Generator to Papyrus/Qompass
Preparing the Development Environment (Prerequisites)
This section provides a step-by-step guide to set up your development environment in order to be able to add a new code generator for Papyrus.
Assuming that you have already installed Papyrus, here are the steps you need to follow:
- Install the Papyrus SW Designer modeler extension from here or add the update site
- Install the Xtend IDE' extension from Help > Install New Software... (select the site of your current Eclipse version, e.g. 202x-yy - http://download.eclipse.org/releases/202x-yy).
- Clone the Eclipse/Papyrus SW designer git repository to your local computer.
Preparing the Required Projects
To be able to develop a new code generator for a programming language (let's say the X programming language), you need to create three different (but interrelated) projects.
- A main eclipse plug-in project for developing the code generator, which you should name it as org.eclipse.papyrus.designer.languages.x.codegen
- An eclipse plug-in project for connecting the code generator to the user interface of Designer, which you should name it as org.eclipse.papyrus.designer.languages.x.codegen.ui
- Another eclipse plug-in project for developing the tests of the code generator, which you should name it as org.eclipse.papyrus.designer.languages.x.codegen.tests
In the sequel, we will use the shorthands oep for org.eclipse.papyrus and oepdl for org.eclipse.papyrus.designer.languages for a better readability. Of course, the full names need to be used in your plugins. Please also note that the screenshots still use a shorter prefix which has been used in a previous version.
Now, let's create and prepare all these projects one by one.
The Main Code Generation Project for the Hypothetical X Programming Language
Here are the steps for creating and setting the oepdl.x.codegen project:
- Create an eclipse plug-in project. In the Project name box type oepdl.x.codegen (as shown) and then click Next >.
- In the Version box type the version number of our target Papyrus (in our case to 1.0.1.qualifier), in the Name box type %pluginName, in the Vendor box type %providerName and then click Finish.
- Upon a successful project creation, you will switch to the Plug-in Development perspective and see an Eclipse workbench window like below.
- The project is created. Now, you need to do the required settings for integrating your project to Papyrus. There are two extensions points:
- oepdl.common.extensionpoints.languageCodegen. This one needs to be implemented for the code generator itself.
- oepdl.common.extensionpoints.languageProjectSupport. This one is for the generator of an Eclipse project supporting the language, e.g. in case of Java, the class referenced via the extension point is able to create a JDT project.
CAVEAT: the following screenshots are not up to date and relate to a previous version in which a single extension (with a different prefix) point is used for code and project creation. It may be useful to look at the C++ and Java code generators available via the Papyrus SW designer git
- After, create a client for these extensions as shown
- And type in this client's language* box X, and in the class box type oepdl.x.codegen.XLanguageSupport.
- Since you do not have such a class yet, you will see a warning like below.
- Double click on this warning. go to the warning icon on the opened editor and click Create oepdl.x.codegen.XLanguageSupport ....
- On the upcoming dialog box, do not change anything and click Finish.
- Upon creation, you will see "XLanguageSupport.java" as below. To remove the errors, implement the methods coming from the ILangSupport interface.
- However, there will now be other errors due to the new dependencies.
- For importing the PackageableElement and Class classes, you need the org.eclipse.uml2.uml plug-in and, for importing the IProject interface, you need the org.eclipse.core.resources plug-in. Add them as dependencies as shown below.
- Now, there must be no problem in our project.
The User Interface Project
Here are the steps for creating and setting the oepdl.x.codegen.ui project:
- Create an eclipse plug-in project. In the Project name box type oepdl.x.codegen.ui (as shown) and then click Next >.
- In the Version box type the version number of our target Papyrus (in your case to 1.0.1.qualifier), in the Name box type %pluginName, in the Vendor box type %providerName and then click Finish.
- Upon a successful project creation, you will switch to the Plug-in Development perspective and see a window like below.
- The project is created. Now, you need to do the required settings for integrating this user interface project to the main code generation project. Firstly, add a dependency to the oepdl.x.codegen plug-in, in which you prepared in the previous step.
- Now you need to add some extensions for organizing your menus. Firstly, add org.eclipse.ui.menus.
- However, upon this addition, you may see a No schema found for the 'org.eclipse.ui.menus' extension point warning message as shown.
- In this case,install Eclipse RCP Target Components to your eclipse from The Eclipse Project Updates software site.
- After following the installation instructions and restarting your eclipse, things will be fine.
- Now add a menu contribution to the extension you added and...
- ...in the locationURI box type popup:oepdl.views.modelexplorer.popup.codegen.
- Then create a command for this menu contribution and...
- ...in the commandID box type oepdl.x.codegen.command, in the label and tooltip boxes type Generate X code.
- The second extension you need to add is org.eclipse.ui.commands and you need to create a command for it also, which has the following the properties: in the id box type oepdl.x.codegen.command, in the name and description bozes type Generate X Code, in the categoryId box type oep.editor.category and in the defaultHandler box type oepdl.x.codegen.ui.handlers.GenerateCodeHandler.
- Careful readers has already noticed that there is a warning occuring after this step (see the Problems tab on the above figure). The reason for this warning is that you defined a default handler that does not exist yet. To go to source of the problem, double-click to the warning and create a new handler class (keep default properties in the create class dialog window).
- The created handler class should extend the CmdHandler class which is located in the oep.uml.diagram.common plug-in. Thus, add this plug-in to the dependencies and then implement the unimplemented methods. To see how this handler is executed, add a system verbose inside its execute() method.
- The last extension you need to add is org.eclipse.ui.preferencePages. Upon its creation, it comes with a default page. Modify the properties of this page as follows: in the id box type oepdl.x.codegen.ui.preferences.CodeGenPreferencePage, in the name box type X code generation, in the class box type oepdl.x.codegen.ui.preferences.CodegenPreferencePage and in the category box type oep.infra.core.sasheditor.preferences.generalcategory.
- However, like before, there is a warning occuring after this step (see the Problems tab on the above figure). The reason for this warning is that you defined a preference page that does not exist yet. To go to source of the problem, double-click to this warning and creat a new preference page class (keep default properties in the create class dialog window).
- The created preference page class should extend the PreferencePage class and implement the IWorkbenchPreferencePage interface. Normally, no modification is needed after the creation of the preference page class.
- Now let's try what you have done so far and see your code generation menu on a real case. In this sense, to create an Eclipse Application run configuration click Run > Run Configurations... and in the VM arguments box type: -Dosgi.requiredJavaVersion=1.6 -Xms40m -Xmx512m -XX:MaxPermSize=1024m.
- Then click Run to run our eclipse application. In the new eclipse instance, click File > New > Example..., click C/C++ hello world example under the Papyrus examples folder and click Next >.
- After, select a parent folder for your example and click Finish. In this example, there is a CodeGenerationExamples java project that was created in advance.
- The example project will be created and the HelloWorldOO.di Papyrus model will be opened directly. There is only one class diagram which is called HelloWorld in this model. Now, right click on the HelloWorld class and go to Code Generation. You need to see Generate X code there, click it! (Curious readers may click Generate C++ code and see how Qompass generates C++ codes.)
- Clicking the Generate X code pop-up menu will cause the handler to execute and thus you need to see the system verbose you defined the handler class on the console of the main workbench.
If all the steps worked fine, you can go on by creating the test project of your code generator.
The Test Project
Here are the steps for creating and setting the "oepdl.x.codegen.tests" project:
Developing the New Code Generator
To develop a new code generator, you will use the Xtend language. For starting Xtend, see the Xtend introductory video and the Xtend documentation.
Here are the basic configuration steps for developing the example code generator:
- Add the org.eclipse.uml2.uml and org.eclipse.core.resources plug-ins as dependencies to the oepdl.x.codegen.ui project.
- Change the execute() method of the GenerateCodeHandler class as follows.
- Create a getCurentProject() method in the same class.
- Create a new java class named XModelElementsCreator.
- In the Source folder box type oepdl.x.codegen/src, in the Package box type oepdl.x.codegen.transformations and in the Superclass box type oepdl.common.codegen.ModelElementsCreator. Then click Finish.
- Upon creation, you will have an error about having no contructor methods in XModelElementsCreator. Add a public constructor as shown.
- Go back to GenerateCodeHandler and organize imports (Ctrl+Shift+O). You will encounter an access restriction problem. To resolve it, export the oepdl.x.codegen.transformations package from the oepdl.x.codegen plug-in as shown.
- Add the oepdl.codegen.base plug-in as a dependency to the oepdl.x.codegen.ui project and then add a generate() method to the GenerateCodeHandler class as shown.
- Change the createPackageableElementFile() method of XModelElementsCreator and add the generatePackage() method used by this method.
- Create a new oepdl.x.codegen.xtend package inside the oepdl.x.codegen project from File > New > Package and click Finish.
- Create a new Xtend class inside this package from File > New > Other... .
- In the Name box type XPackageHeaderGenerator and click Finish.
- Go back to XModelElementsCreator and organize imports (Ctrl+Shift+O). Then come back to XPackageHeaderGenerator and add a generateCode() method as shown.
- Override the isEnabled() method in GenerateCodeHandler as below.
- Now let's try what you have done so far and see how your code generation works. Run the Eclipse workbench from Run > Run History > Eclipse Application.
- Right click on the HelloWorld package and choose Code generation > Generate X code.
- X code for the HelloWorld package is created in the HelloWorld.xx file. Double click on it from the Package Explorer and see the resulting generation.
Generating the Code in a New Project
Dealing with Errors
Integrating the New Code Generator to Papyrus/Qompass
The ultimate goal of developing a new code generator is to make it available to all users. If you want to integrate your new code generator into Papyrus/Qompass, just contact with us.