Using Basic Query API (ELUG)

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Contents

For more information, see Using Advanced Query API.


Using Session Queries

Note We recommend that you perform all data source operations using a unit of work: doing so is the most efficient way to manage transactions, concurrency, and referential constraints. For more information, see Introduction to EclipseLink Transactions.


For more information, see Session Queries.


How to Read Objects with a Session Query

Using the session query API, you can perform the following read operations:


Reading an Object with a Session Query

The readObject method retrieves a single object from the database. The application must specify the class of object to read. If no object matches the criteria, a null value is returned.

For example, the basic read operation is:

session.readObject(MyDomainObject.class);

The following example returns the first instance of MyDomainObject found in the table used for MyDomainObject. EclipseLink provides the Expression class to specify querying parameters for a specific object.

When you search for a single, specific object using a primary key, the readObject method is more efficient than the readAllObjects method, because readObject can find an instance in the cache without accessing database. Because a readAllObjects method does not know how many objects match the criteria, it always searches the database to find matching objects, even if it finds matching objects in the cache.

readObject Using an Expression

import org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.*;
import org.eclipse.persistence.expressions.*;
...

// Use an expression to read in the employee whose last name is Smith.
// Create an expression using the Expression Builder and use it as the selection criterion of the search 
Employee employee = (Employee) session.readObject(Employee.class, new ExpressionBuilder().get("lastName").equal("Smith"));


Reading All Objects with a Session Query

The readAllObjects method retrieves a List of objects from the database and does not put the returned objects in order. If the query does not find any matching objects, it returns an empty List.

Specify the class for the query. You can also include an expression to define more complex search criteria, as illustrated in the following example.

readAllObjects Using an Expression

// Returns a List of employees whose employee salary is greater than 10000
List employees = session.readAllObjects(Employee.class,new ExpressionBuilder.get("salary").greaterThan(10000));


Refreshing an Object with a Session Query

The refreshObject method causes EclipseLink to update the object in memory using data from the database. This operation refreshes any privately owned objects as well.

Note: A privately owned object is one that cannot exist without its parent, or source object.


How to Create, Update, and Delete Objects with a Session Query

Using the session query API, you can perform the following create, update, and delete operations:


Writing a Single Object to the Database with a Session Query

When you invoke the writeObject method, the method performs a does-exist check to determine whether or not an object exists. If the object exists, writeObject updates the object; if it does not exist, writeObject inserts a new object.

The writeObject method writes privately owned objects in the correct order to maintain referential integrity.

Call the writeObject method when you cannot verify that an object exists in the database.

Writing a Single Object Using writeObject

// Create an instance of the employee and write it to the database
Employee susan = new Employee();
susan.setName("Susan");
...
// Initialize the susan object with all other instance variables
session.writeObject(susan); 


Writing All Objects to the Database with a Session Query

You can call the writeAllObjects method to write multiple objects to the database. The writeAllObjects method performs the same does-exist check as the writeObject method and then performs the appropriate insert or update operations.

'Writing Several Objects Using writeAllObjects

// Read a List of all the current employees in the database.
List employees = session.readAllObjects(Employee.class);

// Modify any employee data as necessary
...

// Create a new employee and add it to the list of employees
Employee susan = new Employee();
...
// Initialize the new instance of employee
employees.add(susan);
// Write all employees to the database. 
// The new instance of susan not currently in the database will be inserted. 
// All the other employees currently stored in the database will be updated
session.writeAllObjects(employees);


Adding New Objects to the Database with a Session Query

The insertObject method creates a new object in the database, but does not perform the does-exist check before it attempts the insert operation. The insertObject method is more efficient than the writeObject method if you are certain that the object does not yet exist in the database. If the object does exist, the database throws an exception when you execute the insertObject method.


Modifying Existing Objects in the Database with a Session Query

The updateObject method updates existing objects in the database, but does not perform the does-exist check before it attempts the update operation. The updateObject is more efficient than the writeObject method if you are certain that the object does exist in the database. If the object does not exist, the database throws an exception when you execute the updateObject method.


Deleting Objects in the Database with a Session Query

To delete an EclipseLink object from the database, read the object from the database and then call the deleteObject method. This method deletes both the specified object and any privately owned data.


Using DatabaseQuery Queries

This section describes creating and executing DatabaseQuery queries to perform a variety of basic persistence operations, showing how to do the following:


How to Read Objects Using a DatabaseQuery

This section provides examples of how to read objects using a DatabaseQuery, including the following:


Performing Basic DatabaseQuery Read Operations

The following example illustrates a simple read query. It uses an EclipseLink expression, but does not use its own arguments for the query. Instead, it relies on the search parameters the expression provides. This example builds the expression within its code, but does not register the query with the session.


Simple ReadAllQuery

// This example returns a List of employees whose employee ID is > 100

// Initialize the DatabaseQuery by specifying the query type
// and set the reference class for the query

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);

// Retrieve ExpressionBuilder from the query
ExpressionBuilder builder = query.getExpressionBuilder();

// Configure the query execution. Because this example uses 
// an expression, it uses the setSelectionCriteria method
query.setSelectionCriteria(builder.get("id").greaterThan(100)); 

// Execute the query
List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);

The following example illustrates a complex readObject query that uses all available configuration options.


Named Read Query with Two Arguments

// Initialize the DatabaseQuery by specifying the query type
// and set the reference class for the query
ReadObjectQuery query = new ReadObjectQuery(Employee.class);
// Retrieve ExpressionBuilder from the query
ExpressionBuilder builder = query.getExpressionBuilder();
// Define two expressions that map to the first and last names of the employee
Expression firstNameExpression = builder.get("firstName").equal(emp.getParameter("firstName"));
Expression lastNameExpression = builder.get("lastName").equal(emp.getParameter("lastName"));

// Configure the query execution. Because this example uses an expression, 
// it uses the setSelectionCriteria method 
query.setSelectionCriteria(firstNameExpression.and(lastNameExpression)); 
// Specify the required arguments for the query
query.addArgument("firstName");
query.addArgument("lastName");

// Add the query to the session
session.addQuery("getEmployeeWithName", query);

// Execute the query by referencing its name and providing values for the specified arguments
Employee employee = (Employee) session.executeQuery("getEmployeeWithName","Bob","Smith");

Reading Objects Using Partial Object Queries

The following example demonstrates the use of partial object reading. It reads only the last name and primary key for the employees. This reduces the amount of data read from the database.


Using Partial Object Reading

// Read all the employees from the database, ask the user to choose one and return it. 
// This uses partial object reading to read just the last name of the employees. Since  
// EclipseLink automatically includes the primary key of the object, the full object 
// can easily be read for editing
List list;
// Fetch data from database and add to list box
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.addPartialAttribute("lastName");

// The next line avoids a query exception
query.dontMaintainCache();
List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);
list.addAll(employees);

// Display list box
...
// Get selected employee from list
Employee selectedEmployee = (Employee)session.readObject(list.getSelectedItem());
return selectedEmployee;

Reading Objects Using Report Queries

The following example reports the total and average salaries for Canadian employees grouped by their city.

Querying Reporting Information on Employees

ExpressionBuilder emp = new ExpressionBuilder();
ReportQuery query = new ReportQuery(Employee.class, emp);
query.addMaximum("max-salary", emp.get("salary"));
query.addAverage("average-salary", emp.get("salary"));
query.addAttribute("city", emp.get("address").get("city"));

query.setSelectionCriteria(emp.get("address").get("country").equal("Canada"));
query.addOrdering(emp.get("address").get("city"));
query.addGrouping(emp.get("address").get("city"));
List reports = (List) session.executeQuery(query);

The ReportQuery class provides an extensive reporting API, including methods for computing average, maximum, minimum, sum, standard deviation, variance, and count of attributes. For more information about the available methods for the ReportQuery, see the EclipseLink API Reference.


Note: Because ReportQuery inherits from ReadAllQuery, it also supports most ReadAllQuery properties.

Reading Objects Using Query-By-Example

Query-by-example enables you to specify query selection criteria in the form of a sample object instance that you populate with only the attributes you want to use for the query.

To define a query-by-example, provide a ReadObjectQuery or a ReadAllQuery with a sample persistent object instance and an optional query-by-example policy. The sample instance contains the data to query, and, optionally, a QueryByExamplePolicy (see Defining a QueryByExamplePolicy) that specifies configuration settings, such as the operators to use and the attribute values to ignore. You can also combine a query-by-example with an expression (see Combining Query-by-Example and Expressions).

For more information, see Query-by-Example.

The following example queries the employee Bob Smith.

Using Query-by-Example to Query an Employee

Employee employee = new Employee();
employee.setFirstName("Bob");
employee.setLastName("Smith");

// Create a query and set Employee as its reference class
ReadObjectQuery query = new ReadObjectQuery(Employee.class);
query.setExampleObject(employee);

Employee result = (Employee) session.executeQuery(query);


The following example queries across the employee's address.

Using Query-by-Example to Query an Employee's Address

Employee employee = new Employee();
Address address = new Address();
address.setCity("Ottawa");
employee.setAddress(address);

// Create a query and set Employee as its reference class
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery (Employee.class);
query.setExampleObject(employee);

List results = (List) session.executeQuery(query);


Defining a QueryByExamplePolicy

EclipseLink support for query-by-example includes a query-by-example policy. You can edit the policy to modify query-by-example default behavior. You can modify the policy to do the following:

  • Use LIKE or other operations to compare attributes. By default, query-by-example allows only EQUALS.
  • Modify the set of values query-by-example ignores (the IGNORE set). The default ignored values are zero (0), empty strings, and FALSE.
  • Force query-by-example to consider attribute values, even if the value is in the IGNORE set.
  • Use isNull or notNull for attribute values.

To specify a query-by-example policy, include an instance of QueryByExamplePolicy with the query.

The following example uses like operator for strings and includes only objects whose salary is greater than zero.

Query-by-Example Policy Using like Operator

Employee employee = new Employee();
employee.setFirstName("B%");
employee.setLastName("S%");
employee.setSalary(0);

// Create a query and set Employee as its reference class
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.setExampleObject(employee);
// Query by example policy section adds like and greaterThan 
QueryByExamplePolicy policy = new QueryByExamplePolicy();
policy.addSpecialOperation(String.class, "like");
policy.addSpecialOperation(Integer.class, "greaterThan");
policy.alwaysIncludeAttribute(Employee.class, "salary");
query.setQueryByExamplePolicy(policy);
List results = (List) session.executeQuery(query);


This example uses keywords for strings and ignores the value -1.

Query-by-Example Policy Using Keywords

Employee employee = new Employee();
employee.setFirstName("bob joe fred");
employee.setLastName("smith mc mac");
employee.setSalary(-1);

// Create a query and set Employee as its reference class
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.setExampleObject(employee);
// Query by example policy section 
QueryByExamplePolicy policy = new QueryByExamplePolicy();
policy.addSpecialOperation(String.class, "containsAnyKeyWords");
policy.excludeValue(-1);
query.setQueryByExamplePolicy(policy);
List results = (List) session.executeQuery(query);


Combining Query-by-Example and Expressions

To create more complex query-by-example queries, combine query-by-example with EclipseLink expressions, as shown in the following example.


Combining Query-by-Example with Expressions

Employee employee = new Employee();
employee.setFirstName("Bob");
employee.setLastName("Smith");

// Create a query and set Employee as its reference class
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);

query.setExampleObject(employee);

// Specify expression 
ExpressionBuilder builder = query.getExpressionBuilder();
query.setSelectionCriteria(builder.get("salary").between(100000,200000);
List results = (List) session.executeQuery(query);

Specifying Read Ordering

Ordering is a common DatabaseQuery option. You can order a collection of objects returned from a ReadAllQuery using the addOrdering, addAscendingOrdering, or addDescendingOrdering methods. You can apply order based on attribute names or query keys and expressions.


A Query with Simple Ordering

// Retrieves objects ordered by last name then first name in ascending order 
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.addAscendingOrdering ("lastName");
query.addAscendingOrdering ("firstName");
List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);


A Query with Complex Ordering

// Retrieves objects ordered by street address, descending case-insensitive 
// order of cities, and manager's last name 
ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
ExpressionBuilder emp = query.getExpressionBuilder();
query.addOrdering (emp.getAllowingNull("address").get("street"));
query.addOrdering(emp.getAllowingNull("address").get("city").toUpperCase().descending());
query.addOrdering(emp.getAllowingNull("manager").get("lastName"));
List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);

Note the use of getAllowingNull, which creates an outer join for the address and manager relationships. This ensures that employees without an address or manager still appear in the list.

For more information about configuring read ordering, see Configuring Read All Query Order.

Specifying a Collection Class

By default, a ReadAllQuery returns its result objects in a list. You can configure the query to return the results in any collection class that implements the Collection or Map interface, as shown in the following example.

Specifying the Collection Class for a Collection

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.useCollectionClass(LinkedList.class);
LinkedList employees = (LinkedList) getSession().executeQuery(query);


Specifying the Collection Class for a Map


ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.useMapClass(HashMap.class, "getFirstName");
HashMap employees = (HashMap) getSession().executeQuery(query);


Specifying the Maximum Rows Returned

You can limit a query to a specified maximum number of rows. Use this feature to avoid queries that can return an excessive number of objects.

To specify a maximum number of rows, use the setMaxRows method, and pass an integer that represents the maximum number of rows for the query, as shown in the following example.

Setting the Maximum Returned Object Size

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.setMaxRows(5);
List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);

The setMaxRows method limits the number of rows the query returns, but does not let you acquire more records after the initial result set.

If you want to browse the result set in fixed increments, use either cursors or cursored streams. For more information, see Handling Cursor and Stream Query Results.

Configuring Query Timeout at the Query Level

You can set the maximum amount of time that EclipseLink waits for results from a query. This forces a hung or lengthy query to abort after the specified time has elapsed. EclipseLink throws a DatabaseException after the timeout interval.

To specify a timeout interval on a per-query basis, use DatabaseQuery method setQueryTimeout and pass the timeout interval as an integer representing the number of seconds before the timeout interval should occur, as the following example shows.

DatabaseQuery Timeout

 // Create the appropriate query and set timeout limits

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.setQueryTimeout(2);
try {
    List employees = (List) session.executeQuery(query);
} 
catch (DatabaseException ex) {
    // timeout occurs
}

To specify a timeout interval for all queries on a particular object type, configure a query timeout interval at the descriptor level (see Configuring Query Timeout at the Descriptor Level).

Using Batch Reading

Batch reading propagates query selection criteria through an object's relationship attribute mappings. You can also nest batch read operations down through complex object graphs. This significantly reduces the number of required SQL select statements and improves database access efficiency.

Consider the following guidelines when you implement batch reading:

  • Use batch reading for processes that read in objects and all their related objects.
  • Do not enable batch reading for both sides of a bidirectional relationship.
  • Avoid nested batch read operations, because they result in multiple joins on the database, slowing query execution.

For more information, see Reading Case 2: Batch Reading Objects.

For example, in reading n employees and their related projects, EclipseLink may require n + 1 select operations. All employees are read at once, but the projects of each are read individually. With batch reading, all related projects can also be read with one select operation by using the original selection criteria, for a total of only two select operations.

To implement batch reading, add the batch read attribute to a query, use the query.addBatchReadAttribute(Expression anExpression) API, as the following example shows:

…
ReadAllQuery raq = new ReadAllQuery(Trade.class);
ExpressionBuilder tradeBuilder = raq.getBuilder();
…
Expression batchReadProduct = tradeBuilder.get("product");
readAllQuery.addBatchReadAttribute(batchReadProduct); 
Expression batchReadPricingDetails = batchReadProduct.get("pricingDetails");
readAllQuery.addBatchReadAttribute(batchReadPricingDetails); 
…

Alternatively, you can add batch reading at the mapping level for a descriptor. For more information, see Configuring Batch Reading.

You can combine batch reading and indirection (lazy loading) to provide controlled reading of object attributes. For example, if you have one-to-one back pointer relationship attributes, you can defer back pointer instantiation until the end of the query, when all parent and owning objects are instantiated. This prevents unnecessary database access and optimizes EclipseLink cache use.

Using Join Reading with ObjectLevelReadQuery

Use join reading with ObjectLevelReadQuery to configure a query for a class to return the data to build an instance of that class and its related objects. For more information, see Join Reading and Object-Level Read Queries.

To use join reading with an ObjectLevelReadQuery, you can use Workbench (see Configuring Named Query Optimization))or Java.


Note: You cannot use Workbench to create an ObjectLevelReadQuery with a join expression on a one-to-many mapped attribute: you must use Java.


Using Java

You can use ObjectLevelReadQuery API to add joined attributes for mappings.

You can use any of the following API:

  • Use the ObjectLevelReadQuery method addJoinedAttribute with a join expression or attribute name for one-to-one or one-to-many mapped attributes.
    Using this method, you can add multiple joined attributes, including nested joins. The source and target can be the same class type.
    On a one-to-one mapped attribute, use this method to get the class of the ObjectLevelReadQuery and the target of the one-to-one mapped attribute of that class with a single database hit.
    On a one-to-many mapped attribute, use this method to get the class of the ObjectLevelReadQuery and the target collection of the one-to-many mapped attribute of that class with a single database hit.
  • Use the ObjectLevelReadQuery method setShouldFilterDuplicates with a join expression on a one-to-many mapped attribute to filter duplicate rows. Default is true, unless using a JPA query.
  • Use the ObjectLevelReadQuery method setShouldOuterJoinSubclasses to configure an object-level read query to allow inherited subclasses to be outer-joined to avoid the cost of a single query per class.

Use a join expression to configure nested batch reads and inner or outer joins (see Expressions for Joining and Complex Relationships). You can also specify inner or outer joins using the mapping methods useInnerJoinFetch or useOuterJoinFetch.

The Join Reading Multiple Attributes example is based on the EclipseLink ThreeTierEmployee example project. It shows a ReadAllQuery configured to join-read multiple attributes.

Join Reading Multiple Attributes

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);

Expression managedEmployees = query.getExpressionBuilder().anyOfAllowingNone("managedEmployees");
query.addJoinedAttribute(managedEmployees);
query.addJoinedAttribute(managedEmployees.get("address"));
query.addJoinedAttribute(managedEmployees.anyOf("phoneNumbers"));

List employees = (List) getSession().executeQuery(query);


Use the ObjectLevelReadQuery method addJoinedAttribute(java.lang.String attributeName) to configure the query to join-read a single attribute, as the following shows.

Join Reading a Single Attribute

ReadAllQuery query = new ReadAllQuery(Employee.class);
query.addJoinedAttribute("address");
List employees = (List)getSession().executeQuery(query);


How to Create, Update, and Delete Objects with a DatabaseQuery

You can create, update or delete object with a DatabaseQuery using a DatabaseSession. For more information, see Session Queries.

This section describes the following:


Using Write Query

To execute a write query, use a WriteObjectQuery instance instead of using the writeObject method of the session. Likewise, substitute DeleteObjectQuery, UpdateObjectQuery, and InsertObjectQuery objects for their respective Session methods.


Using a WriteObjectQuery

WriteObjectQuery writeQuery = new WriteObjectQuery();
writeQuery.setObject(domainObject);
session.executeQuery(writeQuery);


Using InsertObjectQuery, UpdateObjectQuery, and DeleteObjectQuery

InsertObjectQuery insertQuery= new InsertObjectQuery();
insertQuery.setObject(domainObject);
session.executeQuery(insertQuery);

// When you use UpdateObjectQuery without a unit of work,
// UpdateObjectQuery writes all direct attributes to the database
UpdateObjectQuery updateQuery= new UpdateObjectQuery();
updateQuery.setObject(domainObject2);
session.executeQuery(updateQuery);

DeleteObjectQuery deleteQuery = new DeleteObjectQuery();
deleteQuery.setObject(domainObject2);
session.executeQuery(deleteQuery);


Performing Noncascading Write Queries

When you execute a write query, it writes both the object and its privately owned parts to the database by default. To build write queries that do not update privately owned parts, include the dontCascadeParts method in your query definition.

Use this method to do the following:

  • Increase performance when you know that only the object's direct attributes have changed.
  • Resolve referential integrity dependencies when you write large groups of new, independent objects.


Note: Because the unit of work resolves referential integrity internally, this method is not required if you use the unit of work to write to the database.


Performing a Noncascading Write Query

// the Employee is an existing employee read from the database
Employee.setFirstName("Bob");
UpdateObjectQuery query = new UpdateObjectQuery();
query.setObject(Employee);
query.dontCascadeParts();
session.executeQuery(query);


Disabling the Identity Map Cache During a Write Query

When you write objects to the database, EclipseLink copies them to the session cache by default. To disable this within a query, call the dontMaintainCache method within the query. This improves query performance when you insert objects into the database, but must be used only on objects that will not be required later by the application.

The following example reads all the objects from a flat file and writes new copies of the objects into a table.

Disabling the Identity Map Cache During a Write Query

// Reads objects from an employee file and writes them to the employee table
void createEmployeeTable(String filename, Session session) {
   Iterator iterator;
   Employee employee;

   // Read the employee data file
   List employees = Employee.parseFromFile(filename);
   Iterator iterator = employees.iterator();
   while (iterator.hasNext()) {
      Employee employee = (Employee) iterator.next();
      InsertObjectQuery query = new InsertObjectQuery();
      query.setObject(employee);
      query.dontMaintainCache();
      session.executeQuery(query);
   }
}


Note: Disable the identity map only when object identity is unimportant in subsequent operations.


How to Update and Delete Multiple Objects with a DatabaseQuery

Using the unit of work, you can perform update and delete operations on multiple objects.

This section describes the following:


Using UpdateAll Queries

Use an UpdateAllQuery to update a large number of objects at once. With this query, you can update a large number of objects with a single SQL statement instead of reading the objects into memory and updating them individually. The following example shows an UpdateAllQuery to give all full-time employees a raise.


Using UpdateAllQuery

// Give all full time employees a 10% raise
UpdateAllQuery updateQuery = new UpdateAllQuery(Employee.class);
ExpressionBuilder employee = updateQuery.getExpressionBuilder();
updateQuery.setSelectionCriteria(employee.get("status").equal("FULL_TIME"));
updateQuery.addUpdateExpression(employee.get("salary"), 
            ExpressionMath.multiply(employee.get("salary"), new Float(1.10)));

UpdateAllQuery takes the cache into consideration and ensures that the cache is kept up to date. You can configure the UpdateAllQuery to invalidate cache (see Cache Invalidation) by setting the cache usage to INVALIDATE_CACHE (default), or to not use the cache by specifying NO_CACHE option. You can manipulate these settings through the setCacheUsage method. You can only update the cache for expressions that can conform. For more information on cache, see Introduction to Cache.


Note: You can set an attribute within an aggregate only, but not an entire aggregate.


You can use an UpdateAllQuery with optimistic locking (see Descriptors and Locking) at the level of updating a row in a database–there should be no updates in the cache. You will update the locking field on the database. There is also support for version and timestamp locking, as well as indirect support for field locking.


Using DeleteAll Queries

The following example shows a DeleteAllQuery to eliminate all part-time employee positions.

Using DeleteAllQuery

// Delete all part-time employees
DeleteAllQuery deleteQuery = new DeleteAllQuery(Employee.class);
ExpressionBuilder employee = deleteQuery.getExpressionBuilder();
deleteQuery.setSelectionCriteria(employee.get("status").equal("PART_TIME"));
deleteQuery.setObjects(domainObjects);
session.executeQuery(deleteQuery);

For more information, see DeleteAllQuery

How to Read Data with a DatabaseQuery

This section describes the following:


Using a DataReadQuery

You can use a DataReadQuery to execute a selecting SQL string that returns a Collection of the Record objects representing the result set, as the following example shows.


Using a DataReadQuery

DataReadQuery dataReadQuery = new DataReadQuery();
dataReadQuery.setSQLString("Select * from EMPLOYEE"); 

// queryResults is a List of DatabaseRow objects
List queryResults = (List)session.executeQuery(dataReadQuery);


Using a DirectReadQuery

You can use a DirectReadQuery to read a single column of data (that is, one field) that returns a Collection of the Record objects representing the result set, as this example shows.


Using a DirectReadQuery

DirectReadQuery directReadQuery = new DirectReadQuery();
directReadQuery.setSQLString("Select * from EMPLOYEE"); 

// queryResults is a List of Record objects
List queryResults = (List)session.executeQuery(directReadQuery);


Using a ValueReadQuery

You can use a ValueReadQuery to read a single data value (that is, one field). A single data value is returned, or null if no rows are returned, as this example shows.


Using a ValueReadQuery

ValueReadQuery valueReadQuery = new ValueReadQuery();
valueReadQuery.setSQLString("SELECT DISTINCT CURRENT TIMESTAMP FROM SYSTABLES");

// result is a single Object value
Object result = session.executeQuery(valueReadQuery);

WARNING: Allowing an unverified SQL string to be passed into methods (for example: setSQLString method) makes your application vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.


How to Update Data with a DatabaseQuery

You can use a DataModifyQuery to execute a nonselecting SQL statement (directly or as an SQLCall), as the Using a DataModifyQuery example shows. This is equivalent to Session method executeNonSelectingCall (see Using a SQLCall).

Using a DataModifyQuery

DataModifyQuery query = new DataModifyQuery(new SQLCall("Delete from Employee"));
session.executeQuery(query);


How to Specify a Custom SQL String in a DatabaseQuery

All DatabaseQuery objects provide a setSQLString method that you can use to define a custom SQL string.

For more information about using custom SQL in queries, see Using a SQLCall.

The following example uses SQL to read all employee IDs.


A Direct Read Query with SQL

DirectReadQuery query = new DirectReadQuery();
query.setSQLString("SELECT EMP_ID FROM EMPLOYEE");
List ids = (List) session.executeQuery(query);


The following example uses SQL to switch to a different database.


A Data Modify Query with SQL

DataModifyQuery query = new DataModifyQuery();
query.setSQLString("USE SALESDATABASE");
session.executeQuery(query);


WARNING: Allowing an unverified SQL string to be passed into methods (for example: setSQLString method) makes your application vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.


How to Specify a Custom JPQL String in a DatabaseQuery

Information pending


How to Use Parameterized SQL and Statement Caching in a DatabaseQuery

By default, EclipseLink enables parameterized SQL (parameter binding) and statement caching. This causes EclipseLink to use a prepared statement, binding all SQL parameters and caching the prepared statement. When you reexecute this query, you avoid the SQL preparation, which improves performance.

To disable parameterized SQL and statement caching on individual queries, use DatabaseQuery methods setShouldBindAllParameters and setShouldCacheStatement, passing in an argument of false. To re-enable this feature, pass in an argument of true.


A Simple ReadObjectQuery with Parameterized SQL

ReadObjectQuery query = new ReadObjectQuery(Employee.class);
query.setShouldBindAllParameters(true);
query.setShouldCacheStatement(true);


Alternatively, you can configure parameterized SQL and binding at any of the following levels:

For more information about using parameterized SQL and binding for data access optimization, see How to Use Parameterized SQL (Parameter Binding) and Prepared Statement Caching for Optimization.


Note: For applications using a Java EE data source or external connection pool, you must configure statement caching in the Java EE server's data source–not in EclipseLink.

Using Named Queries

Named queries improve application performance because they are prepared once and they (and all their associated supporting objects) can be efficiently reused thereafter making them well suited for frequently executed operations.

You can configure named queries at the session (see Configuring Named Queries at the Session Level) or descriptor (see Configuring Named Queries at the Descriptor Level) level.

For a session-level named query, you can execute the query using any of the following Session API methods:

  • executeQuery(String queryName)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, arg1)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, arg1, arg2)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, arg1, arg2, arg3)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, List args)


Executing a Session-Level Named Query

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("Sarah");
Employee sarah = (Employee)session.executeQuery("employeeReadByFirstName", args);


For a descriptor-level named query, you can execute the query using any of the following Session API calls, as the Executing a Descriptor Level Named Query example shows:

  • executeQuery(String queryName, Class domainClass)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, Class domainClass, arg1)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, Class domainClass, arg1, arg2)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, Class domainClass, arg1, arg2, arg3)
  • executeQuery(String queryName, Class domainClass, List args)


Executing a Descriptor Level Named Query

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("Sarah");
Employee sarah = (Employee)session.executeQuery("ReadByFirstName", Employee.class, args);


For more information, see Named Queries


Using a SQLCall

The EclipseLink expression framework enables you to define complex queries at the object level. If your application requires a more complex query or one that accesses data directly, you can specify a custom SQL string in an SQLCall object and execute the SQL string in the context of a DatabaseQuery or using Session API for executing Call objects.

You can provide an SQLCall object to any query instead of an expression, but the SQL string contained in the SQLCall must return all data required to build an instance of the queried class.

The SQL string can be a complex SQL query that includes input, output, and input/output arguments using JDBC data types.


WARNING: Allowing an unverified SQL string to be passed into methods makes your application vulnerable to SQL injection attacks.


How to Configure a SQLCall Without Arguments

You can configure a SQLCall without arguments and execute it directly using Session API. Use this approach when you want to execute a SQL string without arguments (or with hard-coded argument values).


To configure a SQLCall input without arguments:

  1. Instantiate a SQLCall object.
  2. Pass the SQL string into the constructor, as the Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments example shows.
    Alternatively, you can use SQLCall method setSQLString.
  3. Execute the SQLCall using the appropriate Session API, as the Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments example shows.
    You can use any of the following Session methods, depending on the type of SQL string you define:
    • executeSelectingCall: returns a List of Record objects, each representing a database row.
    • executeNonSelectingCall: returns void.

Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments

List result = session.executeSelectingCall(new SQLCall("SELECT * FROM EMPLOYEE WHERE DEPT_ID =44"));

How to Configure a SQLCall with Arguments Using JDBC Data Types

You can configure a SQLCall that takes any combination of input, output, or input/output arguments. Use this approach when you want to bind argument values to the SQLCall at runtime, receive output values from the SQLCall at execution time, or both.


To configure a SQLCall with arguments using JDBC data types:

  1. Instantiate a SQLCall object.
  2. Create the SQL string and designate arguments as input, output, or input/output.
    EclipseLink assumes that a token in the custom SQL string of an SQLCall is an argument if it is prefixed with one or more number signs ( # ), as follows:
    • Input parameter prefix: # (see Example 1).
    • Output parameter prefix: ### (see Example 2).
    • Input/output parameter prefix: #### (see Example 3).
  3. Pass the SQL string into the constructor, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
    Alternatively, you can use SQLCall method setSQLString.
  4. For each output argument, use the appropriate SQLCall method setCustomSQLArgumentType to specify the Java data type EclipseLink uses to return the output value, as Example 2 shows.
    For an input argument, EclipseLink automatically converts the Java data type to the appropriate JDBC data type.
    For an input/output argument, the type of the input value determines the type of the output value. As Example 3 shows, the data type of the argument value passed into in_out is String ("MacDonald") so EclipseLink returns the output value (for EMP_ID) as a String.
  5. Instantiate a DatabaseQuery appropriate for your SQL string.
  6. Configure the DatabaseQuery with your SQLCall using DatabaseQuery method setCall, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  7. Specify the names for all input and input/output arguments using DatabaseQuery method addArgument, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  8. Create a Vector of argument values in the same order as you specified argument names in step 7, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  9. Bind values to the arguments and execute the DatabaseQuery using Session method executeQuery(DatabaseQuery, java.util.Vector), passing in your DatabaseQuery and Vector of argument values, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.


Example 1: Specifying an SQLCall with an Input Argument Using the # Prefix: JDBC Data Types

SQLCall sqlCall = new SQLCall("INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE (L_NAME) VALUES (#last_name)");

DataModifyQuery query = new DataModifyQuery();
query.setCall(sqlCall);
query.addArgument("last_name");   // input

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald"); 
session.executeQuery(query, args);


Example 2: Specifying a SQLCall with an Output Argument Using the ### Prefix: JDBC Data Types

SQLCall sqlCall = new SQLCall("BEGIN INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE (L_NAME) VALUES (#last_name) RETURNING EMP_ID INTO ###employee_id; END;");
sqlCall.setCustomSQLArgumentType("employee_id", Integer.class); // specify output value type

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(sqlCall);
query.addArgument("last_name");   // input

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald");

Integer employeeID = (Integer) getSession().executeQuery(query, args);


Example 3: Specifying a SQLCall with an Input/Output Argument Using the #### Prefix: JDBC Data Types

SQLCall sqlCall = new SQLCall("BEGIN INSERT INTO EMPLOYEE (L_NAME) VALUES (####in_out) RETURNING EMP_ID INTO ####in_out; END;");

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(sqlCall);
query.addArgument("in_out");   // input and outpu
 
List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald");         // type of input argument determines type of output value

String lastName = (String) getSession().executeQuery(query, args);

What You May Need to Know About Using a SQLCall

When using SQL calls, you can use a ReturningPolicy to control whether or not EclipseLink writes a parameter out or retrieves a value generated by the database.

If you want to invoke a stored procedure or stored function, use a StoredProcedureCall or StoredFunctionCall.

Alternatively, you can specify a simple SQL string directly on DatabaseQuery. You can use this approach to avoid the overhead of creating a SQLCall object when your SQL string is simple, uses hard-coded arguments (or no arguments), and you do not require the additional API that SQLCall provides.

For more information, see the following:


Using a StoredProcedureCall

The EclipseLink expression framework enables you to define complex queries at the object level. If your application requires a more complex query or one that invokes an existing stored procedure that your database provides, you can define a StoredProcedureCall object using both JDBC and PL/SQL data types and invoke the stored procedure in the context of a DatabaseQuery.

If you are using an Oracle Database, you can pass in both JDBC and PL/SQL (non-JDBC) data types.

If you are using a non-Oracle database, you may pass in only JDBC data types.

This example contains additional samples on on using stored procedures.


How to Configure a StoredProcedureCall Without Arguments

You can configure a StoredProcedureCall without arguments and execute it directly using Session API. Use this approach when you want to execute a stored procedure that does not take arguments or return values.


To configure a StoredProcedureCall without arguments using JDBC data types:

  1. Instantiate a StoredProcedureCall object.
  2. Set the name of the stored procedure to execute using StoredProcedureCall method setProcedureName, as the Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments example shows.
  3. Execute the StoredProcedureCall using the appropriate Session API, as the Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments example shows.
    You can use any of the following Session methods, depending on the type of stored procedure you are executing:
    • executeSelectingCall: returns a List of Record objects, each representing a database row.
    • executeNonSelectingCall: returns void.


Executing a SQLCall Without Arguments

StoredProcedureCall spcall = new StoredProcedureCall();
spcall.setProcedureName("Read_All_Employees");
spcall.useNamedCursorOutputAsResultSet("RESULT_SET");

List employees = (List) getSession().executeSelectingCall(spcall);


How to Configure a StoredProcedureCall with Arguments Using JDBC Data Types

You can configure a StoredProcedureCall that takes any combination of input, output, or input/output arguments. Use this approach when you want to bind argument values to the StoredProcedureCall at runtime, receive output values from the StoredProcedureCall at execution time, or both.


Note: Use this procedure when all input, output, and input/output arguments are JDBC data types. If one or more arguments are PL/SQL (non-JDBC) data types, see How to Configure a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with PL/SQL Data Type Arguments.


To configure a StoredProcedureCall with arguments using JDBC data types:

  1. Instantiate a StoredProcedureCall object.
  2. Specify the name of the stored procedure to call using StoredProcedureCall method setProcedureName, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  3. For each argument, use the appropriate StoredProcedureCall methods to specify whether arguments are input, output, or input/output arguments:
    • Input argument: addNamedArgument (see Example 1).
    • Output argument: addNamedOutputArgument (see Example 2).
    • Input/output argument: addNamedInOutputArgument (see Example 3).
      In general, you should always specify the return Java data type for all output and input/output arguments, as Example 2 and Example 3 show. If you do not specify a return Java data type, the default is java.lang.String.
      Typically, you specify arguments using the stored procedure argument name as is. However, you may associate a stored procedure argument name with an alternate name that you use in the DatabaseQuery, as Example 1 shows. Use this approach to specify a more meaningful argument name if the stored procedure argument name is cryptic.
  4. Instantiate a DatabaseQuery appropriate for your stored procedure.
  5. Configure the DatabaseQuery with your StoredProcedureCall using DatabaseQuery method setCall, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  6. Specify the names for all input and input/output arguments using DatabaseQuery method addArgument, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
    If you associated stored procedure argument names with more meaningful alternate names in step [[#3], use the alternate names in the DatabaseQuery method addArgument, as Example 1 shows.
  7. Create a Vector of argument values in the same order as you specified argument names in step [[#6], as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  8. Bind values to the arguments and execute the DatabaseQuery using Session method executeQuery(DatabaseQuery, java.util.Vector), passing in your DatabaseQuery and Vector of argument values, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.


Example 1: Specifying a StoredProcedureCall with an Input Argument: JDBC Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE INSERT_EMPLOYEE(L_NAME IN VARCHAR) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with last name.
// END;

StoredProcedureCall spcall = new StoredProcedureCall();
spcall.setProcedureName("INSERT_EMPLOYEE");
spcall.addNamedArgument("L_NAME", "last_name");

DataModifyQuery query = new DataModifyQuery();
query.setCall(spcall);
query.addArgument("last_name");   // input

Vector arguments = new Vector();
arguments.add("MacDonald");
session.executeQuery(query, arguments);


Example 2: Specifying a StoredProcedureCall with an Output Argument: JDBC Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE GET_EMP_ID(L_NAME IN VARCHAR, EMP_ID OUT INTEGER) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with last name and return the EMP_ID for this record.
// END;

StoredProcedureCall spcall = new StoredProcedureCall();
spcall.setProcedureName("GET_EMP_ID");
spcall.addNamedArgument("L_NAME");
spcall.addNamedOutputArgument(
    "EMP_ID",      // procedure parameter name
    "EMP_ID",      // out argument field name
    Integer.class  // Java type corresponding to type returned by procedure
);

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(spcall);
query.addArgument("L_NAME");   // input

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald");

Integer employeeID = (Integer) getSession().executeQuery(query, args);


Example 3: Specifying a StoredProcedureCall with an Input/Output Argument: JDBC Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE INSERT_EMPLOYEE(IN_OUT INOUT VARCHAR) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with last name and return the EMP_CODE_NAME for this record.
// END;

StoredProcedureCall spcall = new StoredProcedureCall();
spcall.setProcedureName("INSERT_EMP"); // returns EMP_CODE_NAME after insert
spcall.addNamedInOutputArgument(
    "IN_OUT",       // procedure parameter name
    "IN_OUT",       // out argument field name
    String.class    // Java type corresponding to type returned by procedure
);

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(sqlCall);
query.addArgument("INOUT");   // input and outpu
 
List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald");         // type of input argument determines type of output value
 
String employeeCode = (String)getSession().executeQuery(query, args));


How to Configure a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with PL/SQL Data Type Arguments

You must use the org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.oracle.PLSQLStoredProcedureCall class if any combination of input, output, or input/output arguments are PL/SQL (non-JDBC) data types. Use this approach when you want to bind argument values to the PLSQLStoredProcedureCall at run time, receive output values from the PLSQLStoredProcedureCall at execution time, or both.


Note: If all arguments are JDBC (not PL/SQL data types), see How to Configure a StoredProcedureCall with Arguments Using JDBC Data Types.


To configure a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with arguments using JDBC and PL/SQL data types:

  1. Instantiate a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall object.
  2. Specify the name of the stored procedure to call using PLSQLStoredProcedureCall method setProcedureName, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  3. For each argument, use the appropriate PLSQLStoredProcedureCall methods to specify whether arguments are input, output, or input/output arguments:
    • Input argument: addNamedArgument (see Example 1).
    • Output argument: addNamedOutputArgument (see Example 2).
    • Input/output argument: addNamedInOutputArgument (see Example 3).
      You must specify the data type for all arguments: input, output, and input/output. You use org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.jdbc.JDBCTypes to specify JDBC types and org.eclipse.persistence.platform.database.oracle.OraclePLSQLTypes to specify PL/SQL types.
      For JDBC and PL/SQL input arguments (and the in value of input/output arguments), you may use any Java type with sufficient size and precision for the argument.
      For JDBC output arguments (and the out value of input/output arguments) EclipseLink converts the JDBC data types to Java types as before. For PL/SQL output arguments (and the out value of input/output arguments), EclipseLink converts PL/SQL data types to the Java data types that Table 105-1 lists.
      Typically, you specify the arguments using the stored procedure argument name as is. However, you may associate a stored procedure argument name with an alternate name that you use in the DatabaseQuery, as Example 3 shows. Use this approach to specify a more meaningful argument name if the stored procedure argument name is cryptic.
  4. Instantiate a DatabaseQuery appropriate for your stored procedure.
  5. Configure the DatabaseQuery with your PLSQLStoredProcedureCall using DatabaseQuery method setCall, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  6. Specify the names for all input and input/output arguments using DatabaseQuery method addArgument, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
    If you associated stored procedure argument names with more meaningful alternate names in step 3, use the alternate names in the DatabaseQuery method addArgument, as Example 3 shows.
  7. Create a Vector of argument values in the same order as you specified argument names in step #6, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.
  8. Bind values to the arguments and execute the DatabaseQuery using Session method executeQuery(DatabaseQuery, java.util.Vector), passing in your DatabaseQuery and Vector of argument values, as Example 1, Example 2, and Example 3 show.


Example 1: Specifying a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with an Input Argument: JDBC and PL/SQL Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE INSERT_EMPLOYEE(L_NAME IN VARCHAR, MANAGER IN BOOLEAN) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with last name and whether or not the employee is a manager.
// END;

PLSQLStoredProcedureCall plsqlcall = new PLSQLStoredProcedureCall();
plsqlcall.setProcedureName("INSERT_EMPLOYEE");
plsqlcall.addNamedArgument("L_NAME", JDBCTypes.VARCHAR_TYPE, 40); // must specify a length
plsqlcall.addNamedArgument("MANAGER", OraclePLSQLTypes.PLSQLBoolean);

DataModifyQuery query = new DataModifyQuery();
query.setCall(plsqlcall);
query.addArgument("L_NAME");    // input
query.addArgument("MANAGER");   // input

Vector arguments = new Vector();
arguments.add("MacDonald");
arguments.add(Integer.valueOf(1));
session.executeQuery(query, arguments);


Example 2: Specifying a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with an Output Argument: JDBC and PL/SQL Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE GET_EMP_ID(L_NAME IN VARCHAR, EMP_ID OUT PLS_INTEGER) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with last name and return EMP_ID for this row.
// END;

PLSQLStoredProcedureCall plsqlcall= new PLSQLStoredProcedureCall();
plsqlcall.setProcedureName("GET_EMP_ID");
plsqlcall.addNamedArgument("L_NAME", JDBCTypes.VARCHAR_TYPE, 25);
plsqlcall.addNamedOutputArgument("EMP_ID", OraclePLSQLTypes.PLSQLInteger);

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(plsqlcall);
query.addArgument("L_NAME");   // input

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add("MacDonald");

Number employeeID = (Number) getSession().executeQuery(query, args);


Example 3: Specifying a PLSQLStoredProcedureCall with an Input/Output Argument: JDBC and PL/SQL Data Types

// CREATE PROCEDURE INSERT_EMP(IN_OUT INOUT PLS_INTEGER) AS
// BEGIN
//     Insert an EMP record initialized with department id and return 
//     the EMP_ID for this record.
// END;

PLSQLStoredProcedureCall plsqlcall= new PLSQLStoredProcedureCall();
plsqlcall.setProcedureName("INSERT_EMP");
plsqlcall.addNamedInOutputArgument("IN_OUT", OraclePLSQLTypes.PLSQLInteger);

ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(plsqlcall);
query.addArgument("IN_OUT");       // input and outpu

List args = new ArrayList();
args.add(Integer.valueOf(1234));   // department id

Integer employeeID = new Integer(BigDecimal.intValue(getSession().executeQuery(query, args)));


How to Specify a Simple Optimistic Version Locking Value with a StoredProcedureCall Using JDBC Data Types

When using optimistic version locking, you typically delegate the responsibility for updating the version field to EclipseLink.

Alternatively, you may choose to use stored procedures to manually update the version field for all of create, read, update, and delete operations.

When using optimistic locking and stored procedure calls, you may only use a simple, sequential numeric value that the stored procedure can generate independently of EclipseLink. To use a complex value, such as a timestamp, you must delegate the responsibility for updating the version field to EclipseLink.

For more information, see Optimistic Version Locking Policies.

To specify a simple optimistic version locking value with a StoredProcedureCall using JDBC data types:

  1. Create stored procedures for create, read, update, and delete operations.
    Each stored procedure is responsible for checking and updating the optimistic lock field: a simple sequential numeric value in your database.
    The following example shows a typical stored procedure for the update operation.
    Stored Procedure for Update Operation Using Simple Optimistic Version Locking
    PROCEDURE Update_Employee (
        P_EMP_ID NUMBER,
        P_SALARY NUMBER,
        P_END_DATE DATE,
        P_MANAGER_ID NUMBER,
        P_START_DATE DATE,
        P_F_NAME VARCHAR2,
        P_L_NAME VARCHAR2,
        P_GENDER VARCHAR2,
        P_ADDR_ID NUMBER,
        P_VERSION NUMBER,
        P_START_TIME DATE,
        P_END_TIME DATE,
        O_ERROR_CODE OUT NUMBER) AS
    BEGIN 
    Update SALARY set SALARY = P_SALARY WHERE (EMP_ID = P_EMP_ID); 
    Update EMPLOYEE set END_DATE = P_END_DATE, MANAGER_ID = P_MANAGER_ID, VERSION = P_VERSION + 1, START_DATE = P_START_DATE, F_NAME = P_F_NAME, L_NAME = P_L_NAME, GENDER = P_GENDER, ADDR_ID = P_ADDR_ID where ((EMP_ID = P_EMP_ID) and (VERSION = P_VERSION)); 
    O_ERROR_CODE := SQL%ROWCOUNT; 
    END;
    
  2. Create a StoredProcedureCall for each of your custom create, read, update, and delete stored procedures.
    The following example shows the StoredProcedureCall for the update stored procedure in the Stored Procedure for Update Operation Using Simple Optimistic Version Locking. example.
    StoredProcedureCall for Update Stored Procedure
    UpdateObjectQuery updateQuery = new UpdateObjectQuery();
    call = new StoredProcedureCall();
    call.setUsesBinding(true);
    call.setProcedureName("Update_Employee");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_EMP_ID", "EMP_ID");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_SALARY", "SALARY");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_END_DATE", "END_DATE");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_MANAGER_ID", "MANAGER_ID");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_START_DATE", "START_DATE");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_F_NAME", "F_NAME");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_L_NAME", "L_NAME");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_GENDER", "GENDER");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_ADDR_ID", "ADDR_ID");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_VERSION", "VERSION");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_START_TIME", "START_TIME");
    call.addNamedArgument("P_END_TIME", "END_TIME");
    call.addNamedOutputArgument("O_ERROR_CODE", "O_ERROR_CODE", Long.class);
    updateQuery.setCall(call);
    


    For more information, see the following:

  3. Configure the EclipseLink descriptor query manager to use your StoredProcedureCall objects for create, read, update, and delete operations.
    The following example shows how to use a descriptor customizer class to update the EclipseLink descriptor query manager with the update StoredProcedureCall from the StoredProcedureCall for Update Stored Procedure example.
    Configuring the EclipseLink Descriptor Query Manager with a StoredProcedureCall
    import org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.factories.DescriptorCustomizer;
    import org.eclipse.persistence.descriptors.ClassDescriptor;
    
    public class EmployeeDescriptorCustomizer implements DescriptorCustomizer {
    
        public void customize(ClassDescriptor descriptor) {
            descriptor.getQueryManager().setUpdateQuery(updateQuery);
        }
    }
    


    For more information, see the following:

  4. Define a StoredProcedureCall output parameter event to handle any errors.

    In the Oracle database, the rowcount is not maintained when calling a stored procedure. You must ensure that the rowcount is returned using an output parameter. Use the Session event outputParametersDetected to check the rowcount and raise an error. Alternatively, the stored procedure could check the rowcount and throw an exception.

    For more information, see How to Configure a StoredProcedureCall Output Parameter Event Using JDBC or PL/SQL Data Types

How to Configure a StoredProcedureCall Output Parameter Event Using JDBC or PL/SQL Data Types

EclipseLink manages output parameter events for databases that support them. For example, if a stored procedure returns an error code that indicates that the application wants to check for an error condition, EclipseLink raises the session event outputParametersDetected to allow the application to process the output parameters.

To configure a StoredProcedureCall output parameter event using JDBC or PL/SQL data types:

  1. Create a StoredProcedureCall using JDBC arguments, PL/SQL arguments, or both. The Stored Procedure example shows a StoredProcedureCall using JDBC arguments.
    For more information, see the following: Stored Procedure
    PROCEDURE Update_Employee (
        P_EMP_ID NUMBER,
        P_SALARY NUMBER,
        P_END_DATE DATE,
        P_MANAGER_ID NUMBER,
        P_START_DATE DATE,
        P_F_NAME VARCHAR2,
        P_L_NAME VARCHAR2,
        P_GENDER VARCHAR2,
        P_ADDR_ID NUMBER,
        P_VERSION NUMBER,
        P_START_TIME DATE,
        P_END_TIME DATE,
        O_ERROR_CODE OUT NUMBER) AS
    BEGIN 
    Update SALARY set SALARY = P_SALARY WHERE (EMP_ID = P_EMP_ID); 
    Update EMPLOYEE set END_DATE = P_END_DATE, MANAGER_ID = P_MANAGER_ID, VERSION = P_VERSION + 1, START_DATE = P_START_DATE, F_NAME = P_F_NAME, L_NAME = P_L_NAME, GENDER = P_GENDER, ADDR_ID = P_ADDR_ID where ((EMP_ID = P_EMP_ID) and (VERSION = P_VERSION)); 
    O_ERROR_CODE := SQL%ROWCOUNT; 
    END;
    
  2. Create a SessionEventListener that handles the outputParametersDetected event, as the SessionEventListener for outputParametersDetected Event example shows.
    Subclassing the org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.SessionEventAdapter is an easy way to create a SessionEventListener: you only need to override the specific SessionEventListener methods you are interested in.
    In the SessionEventListener for outputParametersDetected Event example, SessionEvent method getProperty uses an argument value of ERROR_CODE. This property name and its data type is defined in the StoredProcedureCall method addNamedOutputArgument.
    SessionEventListener for outputParametersDetected Event
    import org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.SessionEventAdapter;
    importorg.eclipse.persistence.sessions.SessionEvent;
    
    public class OptimisticLockListener extends SessionEventAdapter {
    
        public OptimisticLockListener() {}
     
        public void outputParametersDetected(SessionEvent event) {
            DatabaseQuery query = event.getQuery();
            if ((query != null) && query.isObjectLevelModifyQuery()) {
                Number rowcount = new Integer(1);
                if (event.getResult() instanceof Map) {
                    rowcount = (Number)((Map)event.getResult()).get("O_ERROR_CODE");
                }
                if (rowcount.longValue() <= 0) {
                    if (query.isDeleteObjectQuery()) {
                        DeleteObjectQuery deleteQuery = (DeleteObjectQuery)query;
                        throw OptimisticLockException.objectChangedSinceLastReadWhenDeleting
                                                      (deleteQuery.getObject(), deleteQuery);
                    } 
                    else if (query.isWriteObjectQuery()) {
                        WriteObjectQuery updateQuery = (WriteObjectQuery)query;
                        throw OptimisticLockException.objectChangedSinceLastReadWhenUpdating
                                                      (updateQuery.getObject(), updateQuery);
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }
    
  3. Add your SessionEventListener instance to the session event manager, as the Adding SessionEventListener to the Session Event Manager example shows.
    You must do this step before executing your stored procedure.
    For more information, see Managing Session Events with the Session Event Manager

    Adding SessionEventListener to the Session Event Manager
    getSession().getEventManager().addListener(new OptimisticLockListener());
    
  4. Execute the query.
    If there is an error and a SessionEvent of type outputParametersDetected is raised, EclipseLink will notify your SessionEventListener.
    </div>

What You May Need to Know About Using a StoredProcedureCall

EclipseLink automatically converts PL/SQL data types into the Java data types that the following table lists for out arguments (and the out value of input/output arguments).


EclipseLink PL/SQL to Java Data Type Conversion: Out Arguments and Out Value of Input/Output Arguments

PL/SQL Data Type OraclePLSQLTypes Enum Java Type

BINARY_INTEGER

BinaryInteger

java.math.BigDecimal

BOOLEAN

PLSQLBoolean

java.lang.Integer

DEC

Dec

java.math.BigDecimal

INT

Int

java.math.BigDecimal

NATURAL

Natural

java.math.BigDecimal

NATURALN

NaturalN

java.math.BigDecimal

PLS_INTEGER

PLSQLInteger

java.math.BigDecimal

POSITIVE

Positive

java.math.BigDecimal

POSITIVEN

PositiveN

java.math.BigDecimal

SIGNTYPE

SignType

java.lang.Integer


You may use the value from any Java type for a PL/SQL in argument (or in value of an input/output argument) as long as the size and precision of the Java type is appropriate for the PL/SQL type.


Note: You no longer need to use DatabaseQuery method bindAllParameters when using a StoredProcedureCall with OUT or INOUT parameters. However, you should always specify the Java type for all OUT and INOUT parameters. If you do not, be aware of the fact that they default to type String.

Using a StoredFunctionCall

The EclipseLink expression framework enables you to define complex queries at the object level. If your application requires a more complex query or one that invokes an existing stored function that your database provides, you can define a StoredFunctionCall object using both JDBC and PL/SQL data types and invoke the stored function in the context of a DatabaseQuery.

Note that not all databases provide stored functions.

In the Creating a StoredFunctionCall example, note that the name of the stored function is set using StoredFunctionCall method setProcedureName.


Creating a StoredFunctionCall

StoredFunctionCall functionCall = new StoredFunctionCall();
functionCall.setProcedureName("CHECK_VALID_EMPLOYEE");
functionCall.addNamedArgument("EMP_ID");
functionCall.setResult("FUNCTION_RESULT", String.class);
ValueReadQuery query = new ValueReadQuery();
query.setCall(functionCall);
query.addArgument("EMP_ID");
List args = new ArrayList();
args.addElement(new Integer(44));
String valid = (String) session.executeQuery(query, args);


What You May Need to Know About Using a StoredFunctionCall

In general, both stored procedures and stored functions let you specify input parameters, output parameters, and input and output parameters. For more information, see Using a StoredProcedureCall. However, stored procedures need not return values, while stored functions always return a single value.

The StoredFunctionCall class extends StoredProcedureCall to add one new method - setResult. Use this method to specify the name (and alternatively both the name and type) under which EclipseLink stores the return value of the stored function.

When EclipseLink prepares a StoredFunctionCall, it validates its SQL and throws a ValidationException under the following circumstances:

  • If your current platform does not support stored functions. Stored functions are supported only for Oracle.
  • If you fail to specify the return type.


Using Java Persistence Query Language (JPQL) Calls

Information pending



Using EIS Interactions

For an EIS root descriptor, you can define EIS interactions to invoke methods on an EIS.

EclipseLink represents EIS interactions using instances of org.eclipse.persistence.eis.interactions.EISInteraction. These classes implement the Call interface and can be used wherever a Call can be used.

This table lists the type of EIS interactions that EclipseLink supports.


EIS Interaction Type Description

IndexedInteraction

Defines the specification for a call to a JCA interaction that uses indexed records. Builds the input and output records from the arguments by position.

MappedInteraction

Defines the specification for a call to a JCA interaction that uses mapped records. Builds the input and output records from the arguments by name.

XMLInteraction

Specifies an instance of MappedInteraction that defines the specification for a call to a JCA interaction that uses XML records defined by the XML schema document (XSD) associated with the EIS project (for more information, see How to Import an XML Schema).

QueryStringInteraction

Specifies an instance of MappedInteraction that defines the specification for a call to a JCA interaction that uses a query string. Prefix arguments in the query string with a number sign ( # ) character.

XQueryInteraction

Specifies an instance of XMLInteraction that defines the specification for a call to a JCA interaction that uses XQuery. Translates the XQuery from the query arguments.


You can use EclipseLink to define an interaction for each basic persistence operation (insert, update, delete, read object, read all, or does exist) so that when you query and modify your EIS-mapped objects, the EclipseLink runtime will use the appropriate EIS interaction. For more information, see Configuring Custom EIS Interactions for Basic Persistence Operations.

You can also use EclipseLink to define an interaction as a named query for read object and read-all object queries. These queries are not called for basic persistence operations; you can call these additional queries by name in your application for special purposes. For more information, see Creating an EIS Interaction for a Named Query.


Handling Exceptions

Most exceptions in queries are database exceptions, resulting from a failure in the database operation. Write operations can also throw an OptimisticLockException on a write, update, or delete operation in applications that use optimistic locking. To catch these exceptions, execute all database operations within a try-catch block:

    try {
        List employees = session.readAllObjects(Employee.class); 
    } 
    catch (DatabaseException exception) {
        // handle exception 
    }

See EclipseLink Exception Error Reference for more information about exceptions in an EclipseLink application.


Handling Collection Query Results

EclipseLink provides a useCollectionClass method to all subclasses of DataReadQuery and ReadAllQuery, that you can use to configure a query to return results as any concrete instance of Collection or Map.

Do not confuse collection query result configuration with a mapping container policy (see Configuring Container Policy): there is no relationship between the two. Collection query result configuration determines how EclipseLink returns multiobject results from a particular query. A mapping container policy tells EclipseLink how your domain object implements a data member that contains a collection.

For example, consider a class Employee with a data member phoneNumbers. In your implementation of Employee, the getPhoneNumbers method returns a Vector. Using Workbench, you map the phoneNumbers data member as a one-to-many mapping. You configure the mapping container policy so that the mapping contains its value (many PhoneNumber objects) in a Vector. This corresponds to your implementation of Employee.

You define a ReadAllQuery named localPhoneNumbers on the DescriptorQueryManager of the PhoneNumber. The localPhoneNumbers query takes one argument, the ID of an Employee object, and returns all the phone numbers from its phoneNumbers data member whose area code is 613.

You get this query by name from the DescriptorQueryManager for PhoneNumber. You call the useCollectionClass method on this ReadAllQuery, passing in the ArrayList class. You execute the query, passing in the ID of an Employee. The query returns all the PhoneNumber objects from the Employee object's phoneNumbers data member whose area code is 613. The query returns these results as an ArrayList.


Handling Report Query Results

The following table lists the ReportQuery methods you can use to configure how a ReportQuery returns its results.

By default, the ReportQuery returns a Collection of ReportQueryResult objects.


Report Query Result Options

Method Query Returns Description

setShouldReturnSingleAttribute

Collection

Returns a single attribute (not wrapped in a ReportQueryResult).

Use this option if you know that the ReportQuery returns only one attribute.

setShouldReturnSingleResult

ReportQueryResult

Returns only the first ReportQueryResult object (not wrapped in a Collection or Map).

Use this option if you know that the ReportQuery returns only one row.

setShouldReturnSingleValue

Object

Returns only a single value.

Use this option if you know that the ReportQuery returns only one row that contains only one attribute.


For more information, see the following:



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