UI Graphics : Design : Style & Design
Style & Design
Return to the main UI Graphics section on the UI Best Practices page.
The Style & Design section covers style characteristics and gives guidance for designing effective Eclipse user interface graphics including topics such as composition, lighting, color and more.
Before beginning to design Eclipse-style icons or wizard banner graphics, first check if the concept or visual elements have been covered already. Refer to the Consistency & Reuse and Common Elements sections for these elements. If designing an icon or wizard graphic from the start, consider the underlying concept and how it can best be represented. There might be an existing metaphor to appropriately convey the concept.
The purpose of a metaphor is to create meaning. A metaphor will be meaningful if it is based on ideas the audience is already familiar with, and if it fits conceptually with the content and context. It should be clear, easily learned, and readily distinguishable. For example, project and file folders are used in the Eclipse-based workspace the same way they are used in the real world to organize and store project-related information. Since many concepts already have associated metaphors, use the existing metaphors, and when the concept allows, create new representations that extend the metaphor.
Icon style characteristics
The icons should have a clean elegant feel with rich but subtle color and lighting. They are rendered as if viewed directly from in front, but have the illusion of three dimensions. This affect is achieved by using color gradients and an implied light source from the top. A kind of ambient light is also used to illuminate different parts of each icon, either to bring out its shape or to emphasize a certain aspect of the image. Other key features include color gradient outlines to define edges and strong identifiable shapes with as few combined elements as possible.
- For most elements, lighting is achieved with simple vertical gradients. The gradients go from a lighter color at the top of the element to a darker color at the bottom. This approach gives subtle form and illuminates basic elements such as files, folders, and other rectilinear shapes. For spheres, triangles and more complex forms, an additional reflective light source is added near the base of the element to give it volume and to ground it in its environment.
- Each element within an individual icon features a single pixel keyline. Solid color lines define the top and bottom edges of the element, and gradients define the sides. To reinforce the light source from the top, the keyline color goes from light at the top to dark color at the bottom. The gradient along the sides bridges these light and dark colors.
- The color of the outline will vary according to the color of the individual element. In the example below, the file has a dark grayish-blue base and a light ochre color top. This is a standard color outline for this type of object. You will see that other elements use standard color outlines as well. Read more about standard colors under Color below, and use the Common Elements design resource for reusable elements.
Style differences between types
- View (includes Perspective and Fast View), Model Object (includes Table), Object Overlay, Progress Indicator, and Diagram icons have more saturated color and higher contrast than Toolbar, Local Toolbar, and Palette icons. It is important these icons stand out as focal points in the user interface because they are key indicators of the model. Since there are no tooltips associated with object type icons, they are less, or not, accessible to persons with low or no vision. Increased saturation and contrast helps compensate for this.
- Toolbar, Toolbar Wizard, Local Toolbar, and Palette icons have a more subtle approach to color and contrast than their object-based counterparts. These icons are more subtle because they are reliably present in the user interface and should not be distracting. Tooltips for these types of icons make them accessible to persons with low or no vision. Additionally, the use of color for the outlines, instead of black, means the images are not lost if people choose to work in a high-contrast (usually black) accessibility mode.
- A subset of core reusable elements illustrate this distinction best: Project, File, and Database elements each have a rich saturated version for the treeview and a light subtle version for the toolbar and local toolbar. Look for these differences in other icons within the Common Elements files.
Aim for simplicity. Bring focus to the primary function or object within an icon by using different visual cues, such as color, contrast, lighting, size and location to differentiate elements. To improve clarity and reduce visual noise, avoid using too many elements within any given icon.
The location of individual elements in an icon can have an impact on its meaning and recognition value. People learn, recognize, and expect patterns: using a consistent location for visual elements, when possible, establishes a pattern that is useful for identifying the object type or function of an individual or set of icons.
- Actions in toolbar and local toolbar icons tend to be on the left of the icon and identify a command that will be performed on an object or set of objects. For example, the following icon represents "Deploy Script" on the toolbar. The action "deploy" is represented by a green arrow on the left of the script object:
- However, not all actions are located on the left. To convey the intended meaning of a concept or to accommodate the context of the icon in the user interface, diverging from convention is sometimes required. Here are some actions that are notable exceptions to the action-on-the-left convention:
- Create or New is represented by a sparkle in the upper-right corner to denote the creation of a sparkling "new" object. The sparkle, though an object itself, is a metaphor for creating something new. Its location in the icon space is precisely 1 pixel down from the top and flush with the right edge of the 16 x 16 icon space. Using this exact location ensures a clean uncluttered presentation when seen across a number of "new" action icons on the toolbar or in the menu. For example:
- Import, when associated with an object, is represented by an arrow in the bottom-right corner facing downward and to the right. Location and direction are important here to convey that an object will be imported from another location into the workbench. Note that its counterpart, Export, follows the action-on-the-left convention with an arrow in the bottom-left corner because this location and direction is appropriate for denoting that an object will be exported from the workbench to another location.
- Open is represented by a curved arrow in the upper-right corner of the icon. The location, shape, and direction of the arrow indicate that the object is being opened. This action is used mostly on book- or file-type objects. For example:
- Pin is represented by a pushpin on the right of the object. The "Pin Fast View" icon is located on the right side of a view title bar. The location of the icon and the action within the icon indicate the side where the view will be pinned—on the right. Because of this location, the pin is pointing inward toward the object to be pinned. Placing the pin on the left would not work as well given the context and literal action of the icon.
- Objects are stacked vertically, often in large number, within treeviews and lists. Because of this stacking, attention to the alignment of objects within the icon design space is important. This is particularly true of repeated objects that use the same elements. For example, a file or folder used as a base for a series of model object images, should be located in the same place within the 16 x 16 pixel icon space in all of the images within the series. To illustrate the difference between aligned and not aligned objects, first, here is an example showing the base element—in this case the yellow folder—not aligned the same throughout a series of icons. The result is a choppy, harder to scan treeview or list:
- Second, here is an example showing the same base folder element aligned throughout the set. The result is a clean, easier to scan treeview or list:
- States are the result of a direct of indirect action on an object. Once an action is taken on an object, the object reflects that action by showing its state. This state is generally shown on the right side of the icon. For example, invoking the action "Run on Server" will show the server running in the Servers view with a green arrow run action on the right side of the server object.
- Stopping the server will show the blue square stop action on the right of the server object.
- Use a common color palette as the basis for creating graphical elements.
- An entire set of graphical elements, such as icons, wizards and user assistance graphics, requires a consistent, family-like appearance across the user interface (UI); contrarily, individual and sub-families of graphics require differentiation. Color choices can either bring unity or cause distraction.
- Eclipse supports 24 bit color depth, which means that colors used to create UI graphics can come from outside the defined 8 bit, or 256 color Eclipse-style palette. However, using the Eclipse-style palette as the base for applying color to your graphics will help ensure a visual fit within the Eclipse environment.
- To achieve a consistent appearance in graphics across the UI, use a common color palette as the basis for creating your graphical elements.
- Eclipse-based graphics tend to use a common or dominant set of colors: Blue and yellow are the base colors, with green, red, brown, purple, and beige used for signifying specific object types or functions. Here is the palette, with a number of examples of how its different colors are used.
- Figure 1.0 The Eclipse-style palette contains the core and dominant colors used in Eclipse-based icons, wizard banner graphics, and user assistance graphics. Go to the Implementation section below to download this palette.
- Figure 1.1 The two dominant colors, blue and yellow, bring harmony to the overall presentation of the user interface. Themselves complementary, blue and yellow form a base on which to apply accent colors. These few examples show blue and yellow as the common base for different icons, and how other accent colors have been applied to help convey a concept.
- Figure 1.2 Green is often used to indicate that something is being run or initiated, and as a common accent color. The actions "run" and "play" are prime examples of how the color green is applied to support a concept.
- Figure 1.3 Red is used to indicate an error or to signal an alert, but red is also used in real-world objects that are typically red.
- Figure 1.4 Brown is used less than the other colors mentioned, but it is generally associated with specific types of objects: the Java "package", "bundle", and the "Enterprise Java Bean (EJB)".
- Figure 1.5 Purple is associated with “Web Site" or "Site Project", plugin "fragment", and Java "Interface”.
- Figure 1.6 Beige is associated with "template" and "generic" objects. While not limited to these two object types, beige is usually reserved for placeholder or unrealized objects.
Tips and Tricks
- 1. Use color from existing graphics
- To quickly make graphics that are consistent with the Eclipse style without having to use the palette directly, select colors from existing Eclipse-based icons and wizards.
- 2. Consider the background
- When designing an icon, keep in mind the background color it will sit on. The various browsers and operating systems allow custom window backgrounds that people can set according to their own preferences. It is not always possible to know if an icon will be used in different places in the user interface, but generally, the background will be either white or a warm or cool mid-tone grey. Whether it is white or grey will depend on the icon type. Model Object, Object Overlay, and Diagram icons are usually on a white background, whereas Toolbar, Toolbar Wizard, Local Toolbar, and Palette icons usually sit on a mid-tone grey background.
- To achieve the best quality of color and edge treatment, test your icons across all known targeted operating system theme backgrounds. Modify the icons where needed to work well on most, if not all, of the backgrounds. Here is an example of testing a View icon with the different operating system theme selection colors, and a set of Toolbar icons on a number of known backgrounds:
- Antialiasing the edges is suitable if you know the background color. Since knowing the background color is not always possible, using medium to dark pixels on the edges will help ensure that the icon works well on most backgrounds. Using lighter edge pixels can result in poor quality, rough looking edges that do no blend well to the background. This is especially true of rounded shapes on dark backgrounds. The following example illustrates the effect of using lighter pixels on a round icon that sits on a medium to dark color background:
- This example shows the same icon on the same background, but with darker edge pixels:
- In some special cases, a single icon may appear on multiple backgrounds and will need to be designed specifically for each case.
- 3. Download the palette
- Click here to download the "eclipse-style_palette.aco" palette for working with raster-based files in Adobe Photoshop, and the "eclipse-style_palette.ai" palette for working with vector-based files in Adobe Illustrator.
- If you are using The GIMP, click here to download the “eclipse-style_palette.png” image file you will need to create a working palette.
- To load the palette in Adobe Photoshop, open the "Swatches" palette and choose "Load Swatches..."; then navigate to where you saved the "eclipse-style_palette.aco" palette.
- To load the palette in Adobe Illustrator, first save the "eclipse-style_palette.ai" palette in the Adobe Illustrator > Presets > Swatches folder. If you have Adobe Illustrator already open, you will need to restart it after adding this file. Once you restart Illustrator, go to Windows > Swatch Libraries and choose the "eclipse-style_palette.ai" palette from the list.
- To create the palette in The GIMP, first open the “eclipse-style_palette.png” image, then add a New palette in Palette Dialog. In the Palette Editor, which opens automatically when you add a new palette, set the number of columns to “33” then, starting with the top row of the “eclipse-style_palette.png” image, select each color from left to right and click the New icon in the Palette Editor to add the color to the palette. Continue this for each row and Save the palette. It will then show in the list of palettes in the Palette Dialog.
- Save your images with the palette as a base
- In Adobe Photoshop, when an image is complete and ready to be saved to GIF, index the image to "exact" color. This indexing preserves all of the colors the graphic was created with, including any colors you have added that are not contained in the base palette.
- In The GIMP, simply Save As GIF.
- This is an update to the palette shown in Eclipse UI Guidelines 2.1, in the section titled “Visual Design – Icon Palettes” (Guidelines 2.2-2.4): http://www.eclipse.org/articles/Article-UI-Guidelines/Index.html
- The GIMP User Manual is available online at: http://www.gimp.org/docs/