Persona Data Model 2.0
The Persona Data Model 2.0 (PDM) is builds on Higgins Data Model 2.0 and a number of other models (aka schemas, vocabularies, ontologies). It used by Personal Data Store 2.0 and will likely be used by future Higgins web services.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 A graph of Person nodes
- 2.1 p:subCorrelation and Access Control
- 2.2 More detailed example graph
- 2.3 Vocabularies
- 2.4 Linked Contexts
- 2.5 Access Control
- 2.6 Representing Social Graphs
- 3 Persona.owl
- 3.1 UML Overview
- 3.2 Classes
- 3.3 Attributes
- 3.4 Vocabularies Imported by persona.owl
- 4 FOAF
- 5 WSG84
- 6 SKOS
- 7 Restrictions on CDM 2.0 EntityIds
- 8 See Also
The Persona Data Model 2.0 is an ontology about people. It is based on the Higgins Data Model 2.0 which is in turn based on Context Data Model 2.0 (aka CDM 2.0). This page provides an informal overview.
A graph of Person nodes
A person is represented as a graph of
p:Person class Entity nodes (vertices) interconnected by links (edges). Each node represents a different facet of the user (person). Each node is an entity (i.e. a set of attributes & values). These attributes may be simple literals (e.g. the user's first name) or they may be other entities. These latter complex attributes are rendered a as links (edges) to other nodes, but these edges and nodes are not considered part of the graph.
The graph is a logical abstraction. The data behind these nodes may be physically located anywhere on the Internet.
Typically each node in the Person graph is located in its own Context. The root node lies in a special context (for each user) called the root context.
All of the main persona entities can be reached by traversing links of the following kinds, (although other links may also exist (e.g.
p:subCorrelation and Access Control
p:subCorrelation, a specialized (directed)
h:correlation. It is a relation between two Persons in different contexts that are asserted to be representing the same person and such that the value entity is used in a broader scope (with generally more relaxed access control policies). The size of the intended "audience" for the value entity is typically larger than the intended audience for the source entity. It is a non-symmetric attribute of an entity. The value of this attribute is another entity.
SubCorrelation allows us to construct a directed graph of entities radiating out from the root node. The root node's attributes are the most privileged information about a person. Below is an example of a directed graph. We have displayed a reasonable "default" access control policy for each "level" (i.e. number of hops from the root) of the graph.
More detailed example graph
A more detailed example graph is shown below. In order to simplify the above diagram we follow a convention whereby the links are drawn between contexts whereas in reality the links are between the main
p:persona objects within each of these contexts. Further, these main persona entities may well themselves have complex attributes (i.e. links to other entities). These have also been omitted.
In the above example all of the contexts except one express their contents using the Persona Data Model (vocabulary) (shown as purple "PDM"s above). The exception is the managed i-card from Equifax which uses attribute (aka claim) URIs defined by the OASIS IMI TC and by the ICF's (Information Card Foundation) schema working group.
A "consuming" persona in one context (e.g. the profile context shown below) may be linked to a "source" persona in another context. This is done by linking the personas with a
p:source link (complex-valued attribute). When the persona nodes in two contexts are linked in this way, this is an example of "linked contexts."
p:source links allow a single consuming persona node to aggregate one or more other persona nodes (usually of differing
p:role values) from other contexts. This promotes reuse of personas and contexts and minimizes copying and duplication. For example a "recipient" persona in one context might hold a name, address and phone number that correspond to a physical address, say the person's home. If the user uses this home address in 100 Profile Contexts (e.g. 100 eCommerce websites) each of these 100 context's main personas can have a p:source link to this shared home persona & context, rather than having 100 copies of this persona in each of the 100 contexts.
Every p:source link also has an inverse link p:consumer pointing in the opposite direction. For clarity these "back" links are not shown above. Any persona with more than one "incoming" p:source link (or, said another way more than one outgoing "p:consumer" link) is essentially a "shared" persona. Updating a shared persona has the effect of altering the attribute values that will be returned by the contexts that use a shared persona as a source.
At present these p:source and p:consumer links are used only to link persona entities, not entities in general.
Attribute-level Access Control
The rules governing access to attributes in context C1 are defined in an external control context C2 where C2 is an instance of Template Context. The access control policies in C2 are defined using the Higgins data model's access control vocabulary.
Note: This C2 template context may also contain other rules and definitions unrelated to access control.
Person-level Access Control and Linked Contexts
In addition to the Attribute-level Access Controls, a user agent has write access to a context if:
- the user agent is the issuer of the context (i.e. it created the context in the first place)
- the persona to be edited is not linked to by "p:source" links from any personas in contexts whose issuer is other than the user agent
Representing Social Graphs
HDM defines a
h:relation complex attribute that is used in PDM to link one
Person node to another where each
Person node represents a different person. No symmetry is implied in this thus the statement (A
h:relation B) is akin to saying person A "knows of" person B.
Shown below are two social graph examples. One uses
foaf:knows links and and (unrelated to this) shows each node in its own context. The other uses
h:relation links and (unrelated) shows all persona nodes in a single context. In the Work context we see that the user knows three colleagues but doesn't know how they know one another. In the Home & Family context we see that the user knows two people and that everyone knows one another. The
foaf:knows links are shown in both directions although logically this is redundant since
foaf:knows is what is a called a symmetric relation.
Nodes that represent the user are shown in purple. Nodes representing a person other than the user are shown in red.
To indicate that a person A "knows" person B where some level of reciprocated interaction between the parties is implied, we use foaf:knows.
Since foaf:knows is a broader concept than h:relation, foaf:knows is not a sub-attribute of h:relation. Thus if we had the statement "A h:relation B" then we might later add a second statement "A foaf:knows B" to add the stronger, broader (and symmetric) concept of "knowing."
HDM also defines
h:indeterminate link attribute on node A to indicates that its value(s) may or may not represent the same thing as is represented by A.
Consumers of the HDM may traverse
h:indeterminate attribute links and (despite ignoring all other links) traverse the entire graph of
This is the main vocabulary at the heart of the Persona Data Model 2.0
A contextualized aspect (aka facet) of a person.
Abstract concept of a role that a
Roles that a person may play
Work: A work-related role.
Home: Acting in a personal, non-professional capacity.
Buyer: A person who is physically able to receive a bill and pay a bill. This person must be "contactable" to play this role. They must have a v:adr and v:n and optionally other information so that the bill/invoice can be physically delivered to them. Further, they must be able to pay this bill.
Recipient: A person who is physically able to receive a letter, parcel or delivery. This person must be "contactable" to play this role. That is, they must have a v:adr and v:n and optionally other information so that the delivery can be physically routed to them.
Roles defined by the context of your interaction. E.g. an eCommerce website "imposes" an eCommerce role on you, whereas a gaming site imposes broading a gaming role on you.
Ecommerce: A role imposed by eCommerce interactions, e.g. with an eCommerce website
Gaming: A role imposed by gaming-related interactions, e.g. with a gaming website like world of warcraft
SocialNetworking: A role imposed by social interactions, e.g. with a social networking site
A singleton context that contains the "root" Person node of the Person graph.
A context that stores the following kinds of attributes:
- One or more
p:Personnodes each with RP-specific attributes
- e.g. united.com frequent flyer number and account balance
foaf:OnlineAccountinstance (including p:password)
p:Personnodes that have
- Disclosure events
- Events that record what attributes have been disclosed to an RP.
A person other than the user to whom some authority to act on the user's behalf has been delegated.
In the Higgins Data Model 2.0 all Context attributes are optional. However in the Persona Data Model 2.0 we have this requirement:
- All contexts that are made available by a third party (e.g. the government, a bank, etc.) MUST have a
- The attribute value is a URI
- The URI is either the domain name that is the authority behind the attribute assertions or
- The value
http://!self- the user has explicitly asserted entities & attributes in this context
- The value
http://!derived- the active client has derived entities & attributes in this context based on observed behavior and/or assertions made by the user in other contexts
Remember whether or not the person wants password managers to capture the password entered into a login form. Only used in Profile Contexts.
The value of the password that a person might enter into a login form. Only used in Profile Contexts
A role played by a Person
Person node in another context that describes an aspect (usually a role-specific aspect). Both
p:Persons may or may not be representations of the same person.
A relation between two
p:Person nodes in different contexts that are asserted to be representing the same person and such that the value entity is used in a broader scope (with generally more relaxed access control policies). The size of the intended "audience" for the value entity is larger than the intended audience for the source entity.
Vocabularies Imported by persona.owl
- onb: Online-behavior vocabulary
- osoc: Osoc-overlay vocabulary
- event: Event vocabulary
- pay: Payment vocabulary
- app-data: App-data vocabulary
- r-card: R-Card vocabulary
- i-card: I-Card vocabulary
- mapping: Mapping vocabulary
- template: Template vocabulary
- h: Higgins Data Model 2.0
- osoc: OpenSocial vocabulary usage
- v: VCard vocabulary usage
- geo: WGS84 Geo Positioning
- foaf: Friend Of A Friend ontology
- skos: SKOS ontology
- spl: SPL, spin: SPIN, sp: SP
- dc: Dublin Core
- owl: OWL 2, RDFS, RDF
Persona.owl imports FOAF and uses some of the classes and attributes it defines.
We show below the aspect of PDM that builds on the FOAF ontology:
- foaf icqChatID
Persona.owl imports WGS84 and uses some of its classes and attributes.
We show below the aspect of PDM that builds on the geospatial ontology:
Persona.owl imports the SKOS ontology and uses a few of its classes and attributes.
Concept Scheme (instance)
Persona.owl includes a concept hierarchy defined using SKOS. This hierarchy can be used by visual editors (e.g. a persona editor) to help organize the UI. Attributes defined in persona.owl include
skos:concept annotations to indicate the category of concept the attribute belongs to.
Which is represented as:
Note: see Higgins Data Model 2.0 for more information on concept schemes.
Restrictions on CDM 2.0 EntityIds
The PDM 2.0 uses a restricted set of the full capabilities of CDM 2.0. The restriction is in the area of EntityIds. PDM 2.0 adds the following constraints:
- All entityIds MUST be URIs
- All entityId values MUST be Linked Data URIs or XRI 2.0 URIs
- All entityIds within a given context MUST be either (a) relative to a "base" URI of the context or (b) absolute
- Whether or not an entityID is relative or absolute MUST be able to be determined by inspection of its syntax
- Absolute entityIds MAY be globally resolvable
- Globally resolvable entityIds resolve to an entity (resource description) within exactly one context
- The entityId of the context object singleton is "_ContextSingleton"
- Persona Attribute List - a list of all of the attribute concepts that can be represented in PDM
-  - a developer summary of AppCard implementation issues