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Difference between revisions of "Modeling Project Releng"

 
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This document is directed to the '''[[Eclipse Modeling Framework Technologies]]''' ('''EMFT''') [http://www.eclipse.org/modeling/emft/] component owners and was created help them to set up and run their builds. It describes the existing procedures that all EMFT components are required to adopt, describing, for example, how the files should be organized, what the build files are, and the Integration and Milestone release process.
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This document is directed at [[Modeling Project]] component leads, including those in [[EMF]], [[EMFT]], [[M2M]], [[M2T]] & [[MDT]]. This system has also been used for [[GEF]] and [[TM_and_RSE_FAQ|DSDP-TM-RSE]], and with a little effort, can be used for other non-Modeling projects and components.
  
Note that many of the tips and tricks described herein apply to EMF, MDT, and M2T builds as well.
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It describes the existing procedures that components are required to adopt, describing, for example, how the files should be organized, what the build files are, and the Integration and Milestone release process.
 
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Throughout this document are references to releng (Release Engineering) files which need to be configured along the way. When a project is first starting, these steps are normally skipped until after all the plugin content is in CVS. Then, and only then, the [[Modeling Project Releng Module]] can be created for the new project, and builds can begin.  
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----
+
  
 +
Throughout this document are references to releng (Release Engineering) files which need to be configured along the way. When a project is first [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Component_Creation | being created]], these steps are normally not started until after all the plugin content is in CVS. Then, and only then, the [[Modeling Project Releng/Releng Module | Releng Module]] can be created for the new project, and builds can begin.
  
 
<blockquote>
 
<blockquote>
'''''Overwhelmed yet?'''''
 
  
 +
* Creation
 +
:1. [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Component_Creation | Component Creation]] -- includes workflow and TODOs by assignee
 +
:2. [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Website_Maintenance | Website Maintenance]] -- includes how to control web content and [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Component_Creation/Build_Server_Setup|add users]]
 +
:3. [[Development_Resources/Project_Plan/Modeling_Project|Project Plan]] -- includes how to create your plan.xml and set up Bugzilla queries
  
Well, you're in luck. As of 2006-07-12, there is a new module template which can be used as a starting point. For more on creating and configuring a Modeling Project Releng Module, see [[Modeling Project Releng Module]]. Go there, start with that, then come back here for tips and tricks if necessary.
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*Setup
</blockquote>
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:4. [[Modeling Project Releng/Releng Module | Releng Module]] -- how to get started working with PDE's releng.basebuilder
 +
:5. [[Modeling Project Releng/Plugin And Feature Files | Plugin And Feature Files]] -- includes structure & layout for your plugin/feature files
 +
:6. [[Modeling Project Releng/Building Zips And Jars | Building Zips And Jars]] -- includes Incubation status, 3rd party jars, compiler settings, [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Building_Zips_And_Jars#Built_features_.26_plugins_have_.22HEAD.22_in_their_version_qualifier|tagging & releasing code]], [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Plugin Version Auditing|plugin version auditing]] and build/test troubleshooting
  
 
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*Publication
----
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:7. [[Modeling Project Releng/Releasing | Releasing]] -- schedules, reviews, promoting builds, and generating project meta-information (release notes, RSS feeds, newsgroup announcements)
 
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:8. [[Modeling Project Releng/Maintenance | Maintenance]] -- cleanup tips
 
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:9. [[Modeling Project Releng/Branching | Branching]] -- how to branch
This is a live document! We will be enriching it as questions are raised.
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==Plugin and Feature Files==
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The contents of your features and plugins directories should mimic what is available in the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/ EMF] and [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.uml2/ UML2] projects. Although this section tries to summarize the important points, "learning by example" is the recommended approach.
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+
 
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===Directory Structure===
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<span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf example]></span>
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We will ask you to organize your files as we've done for [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/ EMF] and [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.uml2/ UML2]. Basically you will need to create the following directory structure for each subdirectory you own under the EMFT module:
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<table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2" border="1"><tr><td colspan="3"><b style="color:darkred">OLD Style -- features intermixed</b></td><td colspan="3"><b style="color:darkgreen">NEW Style -- features separated</b></td></tr>
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<tr valign="top"><td>
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Old EMFT project (/cvsroot/technology)
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emft/''[subproject]''/
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  plugins
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  doc
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  tests
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  examples
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</td><td><br/><br/> - or -
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</td><td>
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New EMFT project (/cvsroot/modeling/)
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org.eclipse.*/org.eclipse.*.''[subproject]''/
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  plugins
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  doc
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  tests
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  examples
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</td><td>
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Old EMFT project (/cvsroot/technology)
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emft/''[subproject]''/
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  plugins
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  doc
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  tests
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  examples
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  features
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</td><td><br/><br/> - or -
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</td><td>
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New EMFT project (/cvsroot/modeling/)
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org.eclipse.*/org.eclipse.*.''[subproject]''/
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  plugins
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  doc
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  tests
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  examples
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  features
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</td></tr>
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<tr valign="top"><td colspan="3">
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# plugins:
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#* the plugins that provide the function
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#* the features that include these plugins + the branding plugins for these features
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#* the SDK feature (to generate a bundle that includes source + the plugins)
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# doc:
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#* the doc plugins (with the build scripts)
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#* the features that include these plugins + the branding plugins for these features
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# tests:
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#* the test plugins (with the Eclipse test framework artifacts - such as  [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/tests/org.eclipse.emf.test.core/test.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup this one])
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#* the features that include these plugins + the branding plugins for these features
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# examples:
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#* any plugin you want to use as example
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#* the features that include these plugins + the branding plugins for these features
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</td><td colspan="3">
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# plugins:
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#* the plugins that provide the function
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# doc:
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#* the doc plugins (with the build scripts)
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# tests:
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#* the test plugins (with the Eclipse test framework artifacts - such as  [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/tests/org.eclipse.emf.test.core/test.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup this one])
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# examples:
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#* any plugin you want to use as example
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# features:
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#* the SDK feature (to generate a bundle that includes source + the plugins)
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#* all main, source, test, doc, and example features
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</td></tr></table>
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The directories containing features and fragments must be suffixed by ''-feature'' and ''-fragment'' respectively.
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If you want source plugins and features, you will have to [[#Source Plugin & Feature <example>|create them]].
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===General Recommendations===
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* Each feature and plugin directory should be also an Eclipse project, containing all the necessary files such as, for example, ''.project''.
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* The ''.project'' must only refer to builders available to the open-source community. Also, since Eclipse 3M2, it should not refer to other plugin projects. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/.project?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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* We use CVS to backup the files, so...
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** You can, and probably should, use the ''$Id$'' CVS tag. For more details and other tags read the [http://ximbiot.com/cvs/wiki/index.php?title=CVS--Concurrent_Versions_System_v1.12.12.1:_Keyword_substitution CVS documentation]
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** Add a ''.cvsignore'' file to keep unnecessary files (such as the output directory) out of CVS. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/.cvsignore?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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* Don't add unnecessary files to your plugins and features. If you use a "non-Eclipse standard" file, please ensure that it has a purpose and that that purpose is clear.
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* All plugins should provide the following files:
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** META-INF/MANIFEST.MF <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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** plugin.xml <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/plugin.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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** plugin.properties <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/plugin.properties?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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** build.properties <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/build.properties?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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** about.html <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/about.html?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
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* The ''build.properties'' file is extremely important and must be accurate to allow PDE to build your plugins and features. Please review the EMF ''build.properties'' files for plugins with code, documentation and branding plugins, and features.
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====Features <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf-feature example]></span>====
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* The PDE build process is based on features, so all your plugins must be referenced by a feature.
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* A feature directory can contain the definition of other features and plugins. As you can see in the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf-feature example], we use this to define "derived" elements, like EMF's SDK feature, source feature and source plugin.
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* A feature's ''build.properties'' file can specify that the source plugin and feature should be generated. In EMF, this is done in the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf-feature/org.eclipse.emf.sdk/build.properties?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup SDK feature's build.properties].
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====Qualifiers (1.0.0.qualifier)====
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* To add qualifiers to features and plugins, you must have '''4''' pieces set up correctly.<br />
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: 1. Plugins <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF example]></span>
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::* Append <tt style="color: DarkGreen">.qualifier</tt> as the 4th field of the plugin version in every <tt style="color: DarkGreen">MANIFEST.MF</tt> file. <br />
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: 2. Features <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature/feature.xml example]></span>
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::* Append <tt style="color: DarkGreen">.qualifier</tt> as the 4th field of the feature version in every <tt style="color: DarkGreen">feature.xml</tt> file.
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::* Ensure that if you have comments before the <tt style="color: DarkGreen"><feature></tt> tag, they do NOT include the word "feature". If they do, <tt style="color: DarkGreen">1.0.0.qualifier</tt> will not be replaced by PDE with the build's timestamp/id. This is documented in '''[https://bugs.eclipse.org/bugs/show_bug.cgi?id=129868 bug 129868]'''.
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::* Change the versions in all plugins included in <tt style="color: DarkGreen">feature.xml</tt> files to <tt style="color: DarkGreen">0.0.0</tt>. PDE will replace <tt style="color: DarkGreen">0.0.0</tt> by the appropriate version during the build. <br />
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: 3. Doc
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::* Ensure that <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.doc/build.xml</tt> uses <tt style="color: DarkGreen">${pluginVersion}.${forceContextQualifier}</tt> instead of <tt style="color: DarkGreen">${pluginVersion}</tt> or a hard-coded version like <tt style="color: DarkGreen">1.0.0</tt>. You may need to add a new property. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build.xml example]></span>
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<property name="pluginVersion" value="1.0.0"/>
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::* Add these lines to the end of the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">gather.bin.parts</tt> target in <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.doc/build.xml</tt> (line break added in path attribute). <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build.xml example]></span>
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<eclipse.versionReplacer
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  path="${destination.temp.folder}/org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.doc_\
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    ${pluginVersion}.${forceContextQualifier}"
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  version="${pluginVersion}.${forceContextQualifier}"/>
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: 4. Releng
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::* Add the following lines to the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">create.label.properties</tt> target of <tt style="color: DarkGreen">releng/''[subproject]''/buildAll.xml</tt>. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/eodm/buildAll.xml example]></span>
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<property name="forceContextQualifier" value="v${timestamp}"/>
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<echo file="${buildDirectory}/label.properties" append="true" >
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  forceContextQualifier=${forceContextQualifier}
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</echo>
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* OPTIONAL: If you would like your features' versions to be suffixed with a dash followed by a random string of letters and numbers, you must also add a line to your <tt style="color: DarkGreen">build.properties</tt> files. Why would you want this? It is apparently calculated from the CVS tags to ensure that the version for the features will change if the source changes in the build.<br />
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: 5. Releng
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::* Add <tt style="color: DarkGreen">generateFeatureVersionSuffix=true</tt> to all <tt style="color: DarkGreen">build.properties</tt> files in every <tt style="color: DarkGreen">releng/''[subproject]''/builder/</tt> directory. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/eodm/builder/sdk/build.properties example]></span>
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::* If available, add <tt style="color: DarkGreen">generateFeatureVersionSuffix=true</tt> to any <tt style="color: DarkGreen">build.properties.template</tt> files in <tt style="color: DarkGreen">releng/''[subproject]''/templateFiles/</tt>. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emf.releng.build/templateFiles/build.properties.template example]></span>
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Tip: due to property file parser limitations in Eclipse, it is recommended that you '''''always''''' leave an empty line at the end of .properties (and .properties.template) files.
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* For more on plugin versioning, see http://www.eclipse.org/equinox/documents/plugin-versioning.html.
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===Branding Icon In About Eclipse Dialog===
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If you want to use the Eclipse Modeling icon in the About Eclipse dialog, you must reference it correctly in ALL your about.ini files, eg:
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* [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.xsd/doc/org.eclipse.xsd.doc/about.ini org.eclipse.xsd.doc/about.ini]
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* [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.xsd/plugins/org.eclipse.xsd/about.ini org.eclipse.xsd/about.ini]
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* [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/index.cgi/org.eclipse.xsd/features/org.eclipse.xsd.sdk-feature/sourceTemplatePlugin/about.ini?root=Tools_Project&view=co org.eclipse.xsd.sdk-feature/sourceTemplatePlugin/about.ini]
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# Property "featureImage" contains path to feature image (32x32)
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featureImage=modeling32.png
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Note that the latest Eclipse Modeling icon is modeling32.png, as decided by [https://bugs.eclipse.org/bugs/show_bug.cgi?id=154906 bug 154906]. You can copy this new icon from here:  [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/index.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/org.eclipse.emf.query/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.query.sdk-feature/modeling32.png?revision=1.1&root=Modeling_Project modeling32.png]
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===Branding Plugin <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf example]></span>===
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* The "branding plugin" is the plugin that provides specific files to describe a feature - check the example to see what these files are.
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* It is recommended that the branding plugin be given the same name and id as the feature it describes.
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* The "branding plugin" may also contain source, so you don't need to create an additional plugin just to hold the branding files.
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===Core Plugins & Features <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore example]></span>===
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====Core Plugins====
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For plugins with code:
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* The EMF artifacts and model specifications (XML schema, for example) should be located in a ''models'' directory in the root of the plugin. Don't forget to include the genmodel to allow users to regenerate your code.
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* DO commit all generated code. This makes it easier to run your plugin from the workspace.
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* The source files should be placed in "source folders" and each "source folder" should have a different "output folder".
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* The plugins with code should be deployed as jarred plugins. In order to tip the PDE build to jar a plugin, you need to set the MANIFEST.MF's ''Bundle-ClassPath'' attribute to ''.'' and use ''.'' in the ''build.properties'' file. As an example, look at the ecore's [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup manifest] and [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/build.properties?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup build.properties] mentally replacing ''ecore.jar'' by ''.''.
+
Right now you are probably asking yourself why the ecore files are declaring a jar instead of using ''.''. To make a long story short, this is necessary for EMF to bootstrap itself during development (required when you use EMF to develop EMF). When developing, we can easily zip the contents of the output folder into the appropriate jar and restart Eclipse. Our build "fixes" the files before the plugins are packaged.
+
Btw, to jar your plugin, you will also need to add ''unpack="false"'' to the plugin reference in your feature. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf-feature/feature.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
+
* Almost all files should have a copyright. This is what is used for the Java files in EMF (please check the other types of files in the example):
+
 
+
<pre>
+
/**
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* &lt;copyright>
+
*
+
* Copyright (c) 2005 IBM Corporation and others.
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* All rights reserved.  This program and the accompanying materials
+
* are made available under the terms of the Eclipse Public License v1.0
+
* which accompanies this distribution, and is available at
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* http://www.eclipse.org/legal/epl-v10.html
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*
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* Contributors:
+
*  IBM - Initial API and implementation
+
*
+
* &lt;/copyright>
+
*/
+
</pre>
+
 
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* The ''META-INF/MANIFEST.MF'' must end with an empty line. Also, don't forget to add the following line to the manifest to ensure the plugin classes are properly initialized:
+
+
Eclipse-LazyStart: true
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* The ''.classpath'' files should only contain references to the JDK and PDE container and the definition of the source and output folders.
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* In order to ensure that your ''plugin.properties'' files can be translated, you will need to add the following "directives" to them. All strings after a given directive are supposed to conform to its rules:
+
{| cellpadding="2" border="1" style="border: 1px black"
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| valign="top" | <tt style="color: DarkGreen">NLS_MESSAGEFORMAT_ALL</tt>
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| <nowiki>Each string is assumed to be processed by the MessageFormat class (single quote must be coded as 2 consecutive single quotes '').</nowiki>
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|-
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| valign="top" | <tt style="color: DarkGreen">NLS_MESSAGEFORMAT_NONE</tt>
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| All strings are assumed to NOT be processed by the MessageFormat class (single quote must be coded as 1 single quote ').
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|-
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| valign="top" | <tt style="color: DarkGreen">NLS_MESSAGEFORMAT_VAR</tt>
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| <nowiki>Strings which contain replacement variables are processed by the MessageFormat class (single quote must be coded as 2 consecutive single quotes ''). Strings which do NOT contain replacement variables are NOT processed by the MessageFormat class (single quote must be coded as 1 single quote ').</nowiki>
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|}
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* Add a schema for each extension point you define in your plugin. <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ecore/schema/generated_package.exsd?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/vnd.viewcvs-markup example]></span>
+
 
+
====Core Features====
+
 
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''This is a stub. Contribute to this wiki by adding content here.''
+
 
+
 
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===Documentation Plugin & Feature <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc example]></span>===
+
 
+
* While the PDE build is able to automatically create the Ant build script for the plugins with source code, you will need to hard code and maintain the script for the documentation plugins. The easiest way of creating the script (called ''build.xml'') is:
+
*# After adding all the files to the plugin directory and configuring the ''build.properties'' file, right click the ''plugin.xml'' file and select ''PDE Tools->Create Ant Build File''.
+
*# Open the ''build.xml'' file and delete the tasks in the ''gather.bin.parts''<nowiki>; target.</nowiki>
+
*# In the ''build.jars'', use the ''zip'' ant tasks to zip up the content of the plugin - this is required since Eclipse expects the documentation files to be in an archive file.
+
*# Open the ''build.properties'' editor and select the "Custom Build" check box at the top of the page
+
*# Every time you start code a new release, you will need to manually update this build script. See the "[[#Release Process|Release Process]]" section for more details on new releases.
+
 
+
====Javadoc <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc example]></span>====
+
 
+
* Creating javadoc in your plugin requires a number of files &amp; folders:
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build.xml build.xml] (including all source), or<br />[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/jet/doc/org.eclipse.jet.doc/build.xml build.xml] (excluding internal packages &amp; classes)
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/plugin.xml plugin.xml]
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/toc.xml toc.xml] (table of contents)
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build.properties build.properties]
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build/antJavadoc.sh build/antJavadoc.sh]
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build/javadoc.xml.template build/javadoc.xml.template]
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/build/overview.html build/overview.html]
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/images/ images/] (folder, ref'd in build.xml#build.jars)
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/references/ references/] (folder, ref'd in build.xml#build.jars)
+
*# [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/tutorials/ tutorials/] (folder, ref'd in build.xml#build.jars)
+
<br />
+
* Note that unless you have images, references, or tutorials at the time you're creating these files, you'll have to toss a placeholder into them so they won't be pruned (ignored) when extracting from CVS. A simple (blank) [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/doc/org.eclipse.eodm.doc/references/.cvsignore .cvsignore] file will do nicely.
+
 
+
====Javadoc Indexed By Eclipse Help====
+
 
+
To get Eclipse to index your javadoc in the Help system, you must revise the following files (see also [https://bugs.eclipse.org/bugs/show_bug.cgi?id=142558 bug 142558]):
+
 
+
1. Specify where extra topics_*.xml files are attached to the main table of contents entry: [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc/toc.xml toc.xml]
+
<topic label="Reference">
+
  <link toc="'''topics_Reference.xml'''"/>
+
</topic>
+
 
+
2. Specify which files to include in the doc plugin (custom build script, not PDE-generated): [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc/build.xml build.xml]
+
  <target name="gather.bin.parts" depends="init" if="destination.temp.folder">
+
    ...
+
    <fileset dir="${build.result.folder}"
+
      includes="about.*,eclipse*.gif,eclipse*.png,eclipse*.jpg,plugin.*,toc*.xml,'''topics_*.xml''',doc.zip,index/**,META-INF/**"/>
+
    ...
+
  </target>
+
 
+
3. '''UPDATED''' Configure [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc/build/javadoc.xml.template javadoc.xml.template], if required. Doclet is no longer used; instead, generation is done simply in [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc/build/antJavadoc.sh?content-type=text%2Fplain antJavadoc.sh]
+
<target name="javadoc" depends="extractPlatformJavadoc">
+
...
+
<javadoc ...>
+
  <arg value="-J-Xmx256m"/>
+
  ...
+
</javadoc>
+
...
+
 
+
4. Define extension points to allow extra topics_*.xml files to be seen in Eclipse Help: [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emf/doc/org.eclipse.emf.doc/plugin.xml plugin.xml]
+
  &lt;!-- ============================= -->
+
  &lt;!-- Define TOCs                  -->
+
  &lt;!-- ============================= -->
+
+
  <extension point="org.eclipse.help.toc">
+
    <toc file="'''topics_Reference.xml'''" />
+
  </extension>
+
+
  &lt;!-- ============================= -->
+
  &lt;!-- Define Javadoc locations      -->
+
  &lt;!-- ============================= -->
+
  <extension point="org.eclipse.pde.core.javadoc">
+
      <javadoc path="'''references/javadoc'''"> &lt;!-- defaults to reference/api -->
+
      </javadoc>
+
  </extension>
+
 
+
===Tests Plugin & Feature===
+
 
+
''This is a stub. Contribute to this wiki by adding content here.''
+
 
+
 
+
===Examples Plugin & Feature===
+
 
+
''This is a stub. Contribute to this wiki by adding content here.''
+
 
+
 
+
===SDK Feature===
+
 
+
''This is a stub. Contribute to this wiki by adding content here.''
+
 
+
 
+
===Source Plugin &amp; Feature <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature example]></span>===
+
 
+
* To create a source plugin and feature, you must have '''5''' pieces set up correctly.<br />
+
: 1. org.eclipse.''[subproject]''-feature/<tt style="color: DarkGreen">feature.xml</tt> <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature/feature.xml example]></span>
+
:: This will define which *src.zip files will be created - one per plugin include in the feature. If you want source for your examples, do the same in your ''[subproject]''.examples-feature.
+
 
+
:: [update] '''NOTE:''' you must include your branding plugin (eg., org.eclipse.net4j) in your branding feature (eg., [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/net4j/plugins/org.eclipse.net4j-feature/feature.xml org.eclipse.net4j-feature/feature.xml]), even if it contains NO source, in order to properly suppress unpacking src/* in the .source plugin. Ensure that you've set that plugin to be unpack="false":
+
 
+
<plugin
+
  id="org.eclipse.net4j"
+
  download-size="0"
+
  install-size="0"
+
  version="0.0.0"
+
  '''unpack="false"'''/>
+
 
+
: 2. org.eclipse.''[subproject]''-feature/<tt style="color: DarkGreen">sourceTemplateFeature/*</tt> <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature/sourceTemplateFeature example]></span>
+
: 3. org.eclipse.''[subproject]''-feature/<tt style="color: DarkGreen">sourceTemplatePlugin/*</tt> <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature/sourceTemplatePlugin example]></span>
+
:: These define the contents that will go into your source feature(s) and plugin(s).
+
: 4. org.eclipse.''[subproject]''-feature/<tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.sdk/feature.xml</tt> <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm-feature/org.eclipse.eodm.sdk/feature.xml example]></span>
+
+
<includes
+
  id="org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.source"
+
  version="1.0.0"
+
  match="[http://help.eclipse.org/help32/index.jsp?topic=/org.eclipse.platform.doc.isv/reference/misc/feature_manifest.html%3Fresultof%3D%22compatible%22%20%22matching%20rule%22 compatible]"/>
+
 
+
:: This connects your SDK to your .source plugins/features so that they will be included in the SDK. For more on match rules, see [http://help.eclipse.org/help32/index.jsp?topic=/org.eclipse.platform.doc.isv/reference/misc/feature_manifest.html%3Fresultof%3D%22matching%20rule%22 Matching Rules].
+
: 5. org.eclipse.''[subproject]''.*/<tt style="color: DarkGreen">build.properties</tt> (for '''ALL''' applicable plugins) <span style="font-size: 9pt"><[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm.editor/build.properties example]></span>
+
 
+
<blockquote>
+
<table>
+
<tr><td>
+
====Bundle-ClassPath With Dot====
+
<b style="color: DarkGreen">RECOMMENDED:</b> ''jarred plugins w/ org/eclipse/.../*.class files''
+
</td>
+
<td>&#160; &#160;</td><td>
+
====Bundle-ClassPath With Jar====
+
<b style="color: Orange">NOT RECOMMENDED:</b> ''jarred plugins with nested jars''
+
</td></tr>
+
<tr><td>
+
# NLS_MESSAGEFORMAT_VAR
+
source.. = src/
+
output.. = bin/
+
 
+
src.includes = about.html
+
bin.includes = plugin.xml,\
+
                plugin.properties,\
+
                icons/,\
+
                .,\
+
                META-INF/
+
 
+
Use <tt style="color: DarkGreen">.</tt> instead of a jar name; repeat in MANIFEST.MF files:
+
+
Bundle-ClassPath: .
+
</td><td>&#160; &#160;</td><td>
+
# NLS_MESSAGEFORMAT_VAR
+
source.''[Bundle-ClassPath]'' = src/
+
output.''[Bundle-ClassPath]'' = bin/
+
 
+
src.includes = about.html
+
bin.includes = plugin.xml,\
+
                plugin.properties,\
+
                icons/,\
+
                ''[Bundle-ClassPath]'',\
+
                META-INF/
+
 
+
Note that <tt style="color: DarkGreen">''[Bundle-ClassPath]''</tt> is the jar name defined in the matching [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/eodm/plugins/org.eclipse.eodm.editor/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF MANIFEST.MF], such as:
+
+
Bundle-ClassPath: eodmeditor.jar
+
</td></tr></table>
+
 
</blockquote>
 
</blockquote>
  
These define what gets packaged in the *src.zip files. You should NOT use <tt style="color: DarkGreen">src.includes = src/</tt> unless you want your source plugin to include BOTH a *src.zip (containing *.java source files) and the unpacked *.java source files themselves.
+
===See Also===
 
+
==== Multiple Namespaces ====
+
 
+
* If you want to contribute sources to your SDK, you must create a source plugin and feature for every feature that will contribute source. If you only have one main feature, eg, org.eclipse.emf.''[subproject]''-feature, there will be one src.zip created for every plugin listed in that feature's feature.xml. If you have more than one, as in the case with [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/org.eclipse.emft/transaction/plugins/ org.eclipse.emf.transaction], containing both org.eclipse.emf.transaction-feature and org.eclipse.emf.workspace-feature, each must contain its own sourceTemplateFeature and sourceTemplatePlugin. ''(???)''
+
 
+
* You can also use the generate.feature directive in your SDK's  [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/transaction/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.transaction-feature/org.eclipse.emf.transaction.sdk/build.properties build.properties], if you have source for more than one namespace. ''(???)''
+
 
+
==Building Zips & Jars==
+
 
+
* We use the Eclipse build process which relies on PDE. See this [http://www.eclipse.org/articles/Article-PDE-Automation/automation.html article] if you are interested in the details. It also covers the JUnit automated tests that can be run during the build.
+
* You can use PDE to configure what will appear in your zips.
+
 
+
 
+
===Incubation Status===
+
 
+
In order to comply with [http://www.eclipse.org/projects/dev_process/incubation-conforming.php Eclipse.org's Incubation Rules], EMFT components must adhere to these 3 rules.
+
 
+
For example, here are the changes required to make EMF Compare compliant: [http://www.eclipse.org/modeling/emf/searchcvs.php?q=197820+file%3A+%2Fcvsroot%2Fmodeling%2Forg.eclipse.emf%2Forg.eclipse.emf.compare&project=0&fullpath Search CVS results]
+
 
+
: 1. ''All downloadable zip files for builds and milestones must include the word <code>incubation</code> in the filename. For example, <code>emft-compare-SDK-incubation-N200708031343.zip</code>. The jar files in the download zip file are NOT required ([https://bugs.eclipse.org/bugs/show_bug.cgi?id=178944 bug 178944]) to contain the word <code>incubation</code> in the filename.''
+
 
+
: To change your build to provide <code>-incubation</code> in the zip names, search your .releng project for "<code>.zip</code>" and fix all files accordingly. [http://www.eclipse.org/modeling/emf/searchcvs.php?q=197820+file%3A+%2Fcvsroot%2Fmodeling%2Forg.eclipse.emf%2Forg.eclipse.emf.compare.releng&project=0&fullpath Releng Example]
+
 
+
::* Building: customTargets.xml (all versions of this file)
+
::* Testing: relengbuildgtk.sh, testManifest.xml, testManifest.xml.template, testing.properties, readme.html
+
::* Promoting: promoteToEclipse.*.properties
+
 
+
: 2. ''All <code>Bundle-Name</code>s must include the world <code>incubation</code>. Note that <code>Bundle-SymbolicName</code>s should not include <code>incubation</code> because the Bundle-SymbolicName is a technical namespace, not a user namespace. For example, <code>Bundle-Name: Foo Plug-in (Incubation)</code>.''
+
 
+
: Update all your component's MANIFEST.MF and/or plugin.properties files, including tests, examples, and doc (which file to edit depends on where "Bundle-Name" strings are located). [http://www.eclipse.org/modeling/emf/searchcvs.php?q=197820+file%3A+%2Fcvsroot%2Fmodeling%2Forg.eclipse.emf%2Forg.eclipse.emf.compare%2F%25%2FMANIFEST.MF&project=0&fullpath MANIFEST.MF Example]
+
 
+
Bundle-Name: %pluginName '''(Incubation)''' [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/index.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/org.eclipse.emf.compare/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.compare/META-INF/MANIFEST.MF?root=Modeling_Project&view=co]
+
 
+
: 3. ''The names for update manager features must include the word <code>incubation</code>. For example, <code>EMF Compare Documentation (Incubation)</code>.''
+
 
+
: Update all your component's feature.xml and/or feature.properties files, including tests, examples, doc, and SDK features. Add <code> (Incubation)</code> to both the feature label and the feature description. [http://www.eclipse.org/modeling/emf/searchcvs.php?q=197820+file%3A+%2Fcvsroot%2Fmodeling%2Forg.eclipse.emf%2Forg.eclipse.emf.compare%2F%25%2Ffeature.&project=0&fullpath Feature.* Example]
+
 
+
<feature
+
      id="org.eclipse.emf.compare.sdk"
+
      label="EMF Compare SDK '''(Incubation)'''"
+
      version="0.7.0.qualifier"
+
      provider-name="Eclipse.org">
+
 
+
  <description>
+
      EMF Compare SDK includes runtime, source, and documentation '''(Incubation)'''
+
  </description> [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/index.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/org.eclipse.emf.compare/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.compare.sdk-feature/feature.xml?root=Modeling_Project&view=co]
+
 
+
When a project exits incubation, above changes should be reversed to remove the <code>incubation</code> identifiers from features, plugins, and zip file names.
+
 
+
===Customizing Zip Bundles===
+
 
+
In the event that you have plugins or features that PDE will not normally bundle together, such as .ui plugins in the runtime zip, you will need to adjust the way PDE behaves in order to ensure all your plugins/features appear in your zips as you need them. If you need a custom zip, like EMF has for Models or Standalone, this is also how you can accomplish this.
+
 
+
There's two ways to customize what gets put into a zip bundle by PDE: the correct way (a) and the shortcut (b)
+
 
+
====Option A====
+
 
+
The first method involves creating a feature which sets up the included features/plugins that have to be in there, as with .sdk features in the EMFT subprojects (ocl, query, validation, transaction). See details in [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft CVS]. An example of this is [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextools.cgi/org.eclipse.emf/plugins/org.eclipse.emf-feature/org.eclipse.emf.sdk org.eclipse.emf-feature/org.eclipse.emf.sdk]. It is nested (rather than being its own <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emf.''[subproject]''.''[bundlename]''-feature</tt>) for cosmetic reasons (it looks in the file system).
+
 
+
When creating a new <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emf.''[subproject]''-feature/org.eclipse.emf.''[subproject]''.''[bundlename]''</tt> (or <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emf.''[subproject]''.''[bundlename]''-feature</tt>), you will need to ensure it's properly connected to the build harness in 3 ways:
+
 
+
: 1. First, you'll need a folder under your builder/ directory for the feature build, such as:
+
org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/builder/sdk/
+
Into this folder must go a <tt style="color: DarkGreen">customTargets.xml</tt> and a <tt style="color: DarkGreen">build.properties</tt> file. Then make sure that <tt style="color: DarkGreen">customTargets.xml</tt> refers to the feature correctly, as in [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/builder/sdk/customTargets.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/xml <tt style="color: DarkGreen">customTargets.xml</tt>]. (Search for "sdk" on lines 9, 20, 187.)
+
 
+
: 2. Then, the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">buildAll.xml</tt> script must be told how to build the new zip, eg, [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/buildAll.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/xml <tt style="color: DarkGreen">buildAll.xml</tt>] (line 139):
+
<target name="buildAll" depends="init">
+
  <ant antfile="build.xml" target="main">
+
    <property name="component" value="builder/sdk"/>
+
  </ant>
+
  ...
+
</target>
+
 
+
: 3. And finally, you need to add the custom feature to the mapfile &amp; mapfile template, since it won't be generated by PDE into the mapfile automagically. Examples: [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/maps/validation.map?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/plain <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/maps/validation.map</tt>]<br />[http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/templateFiles/validation.map.template?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/plain <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/templateFiles/validation.map.template</tt>]<br /><br /> Add an entry such as (line break added for clarity):<br /><tt style="color: DarkGreen">feature@org.eclipse.emf.validation.sdk=@cvsTag@,@cvsRoot1@,,org.eclipse.emft/validation/plugins/ org.eclipse.emf.validation-feature/org.eclipse.emf.validation.sdk</tt><br /><br />
+
 
+
====Option B (or adding an optional dependency)====
+
 
+
The second method is faster (and, arguably, more hackish). This is also a valid method for adding an optional dependency, like for example adding optional support for OCL.
+
 
+
Instead of one feature per zip, as above, you can have custom instructions/rules in the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">buildAll.xml</tt> script which allow you to copy extra files that would normally be excluded from the zip to clean up missing content. These instructions are kept in one place (ie., only one ant script), so maintenance is easier, but this solution should only be used to add files to existing bundles, not to create new, custom ones.
+
 
+
For example, there's a [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/validation/plugins <tt style="color: DarkGreen">validation.ocl</tt>] plugin which must be included in the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/validation/plugins <tt style="color: DarkGreen">validation</tt>] runtime, but since the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">validation-feature</tt> makes no mention of it, it's excluded. So, to work around this, once the SDK is built, copy the <tt style="color: DarkGreen">validaton.ocl</tt> plugin &amp; feature from the SDK zip to the runtime zip after its assembly. This is done in the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/buildAll.xml?rev=HEAD&content-type=text/xml <tt style="color: DarkGreen">org.eclipse.emft/releng/validation/buildAll.xml</tt>] script:
+
<target name="buildAll" depends="init">
+
  <ant antfile="build.xml" target="main">
+
    <property name="component" value="builder/sdk" />
+
  </ant>
+
 
+
  <ant antfile="build.xml" target="main">
+
    <property name="component" value="builder/runtime" />
+
  </ant>
+
  ...
+
 
+
  &lt;!-- add .ocl feature + plugin from SDK to runtime -->
+
  <zip update="true"
+
    destfile="${buildDirectory}/${buildLabel}/emft-${subprojectName}-runtime-${buildAlias}.zip">
+
    <zipfileset
+
      src="${buildDirectory}/${buildLabel}/emft-${subprojectName}-SDK-${buildAlias}.zip">
+
      <include name="**/org.eclipse.emf.${subprojectName}.ocl*"/>
+
      <include name="**/org.eclipse.emf.${subprojectName}.ocl*/*"/>
+
    </zipfileset>
+
  </zip>
+
  ...
+
</target>
+
  
Bear in mind that you must ensure that everything you need to compile is available. You will need to edit all the [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/query/builder/sdk/customTargets.xml <tt style="color: DarkGreen">customTargets.xml</tt>] files that are used to build code which depends on the new reqiurement. See target "postSetup".
+
* [[Modeling_Project_Releng/Cheat_Sheet|Modeling Project Releng Cheat Sheet]] -- quick reference guide for running and promoting builds by hand and by schedule
 +
* [[Modeling Project Releng Plan]] -- what's the plan?
 +
* [https://bugs.eclipse.org/bugs/buglist.cgi?product=Modeling&component=Releng&component=Website&bug_status=NEW&bug_status=ASSIGNED&bug_status=REOPENED&order=bugs.bug_status,bugs.target_milestone,bugs.bug_id&query_format=advanced Open Modeling Project Releng Bugs / RFEs]
 +
* Server configuration for [[EMF_Build_Server_Setup|emf.torolab]] & [[EMFT_Build_Server_Setup|emft.eclipse]]
 +
* [[Platform-releng-faq|Platform Releng FAQ]]
 +
* [[:Category:Releng]]
  
<ant target="getDependency" antfile="${getDeps.xml}">
 
    <property name="url" value="${oclURL}"/>
 
    <property name="file" value="${oclFile}"/>
 
    <property name="isUnpackedFile" value="${buildDirectory}/plugins/org.eclipse.emf.ocl/plugin.xml"/>
 
</ant>
 
  
If your tests require addtional plugins in order to compile or run, be sure to add them to your [http://dev.eclipse.org/viewcvs/indextech.cgi/*checkout*/org.eclipse.emft/releng/transaction/builder/tests/scripts/test.xml <tt style="color: DarkGreen">test.xml</tt>] file. See target "setup".
+
[[Category:Modeling]] [[Category:Releng]]

Latest revision as of 00:27, 23 November 2008

This document is directed at Modeling Project component leads, including those in EMF, EMFT, M2M, M2T & MDT. This system has also been used for GEF and DSDP-TM-RSE, and with a little effort, can be used for other non-Modeling projects and components.

It describes the existing procedures that components are required to adopt, describing, for example, how the files should be organized, what the build files are, and the Integration and Milestone release process.

Throughout this document are references to releng (Release Engineering) files which need to be configured along the way. When a project is first being created, these steps are normally not started until after all the plugin content is in CVS. Then, and only then, the Releng Module can be created for the new project, and builds can begin.

  • Creation
1. Component Creation -- includes workflow and TODOs by assignee
2. Website Maintenance -- includes how to control web content and add users
3. Project Plan -- includes how to create your plan.xml and set up Bugzilla queries
  • Setup
4. Releng Module -- how to get started working with PDE's releng.basebuilder
5. Plugin And Feature Files -- includes structure & layout for your plugin/feature files
6. Building Zips And Jars -- includes Incubation status, 3rd party jars, compiler settings, tagging & releasing code, plugin version auditing and build/test troubleshooting
  • Publication
7. Releasing -- schedules, reviews, promoting builds, and generating project meta-information (release notes, RSS feeds, newsgroup announcements)
8. Maintenance -- cleanup tips
9. Branching -- how to branch

See Also